Antimatter

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The Antimatter

The term antimatter is the opposite of normal matter. More specifically we can say that the subatomic particles of antimatter have properties that are opposite to those of normal matter. The electrical charge of those particles is reversed. The antimatter was created along with matter after the Big Bang but the antimatter is rare in today's universe and scientists really aren't sure.


Antimatter Meaning

The term antimatter is a substance that is composed of subatomic particles that have the mass, and electric charge, and magnetic moment of the electrons as well as, protons, and neutrons of ordinary matter but for which the electric charge and momentum i.e., the magnetic moments are opposite in sign. The particle that is the antimatter corresponding to electrons, and protons, and neutrons are known as positrons denoted by e+, antiprotons denoted by p, and antineutrons that is n.

They  collectively are known as antiparticles. The properties that are electrical of antimatter being opposite to those of ordinary matter. That is  the positron has a positive charge and the antiproton has a charge which is negative. And the antineutron which is though electrically neutral has a magnetic moment that is opposite in sign to neutron. 

Antimatter and the matter both cannot coexist at close range for more than a small fraction of a second because they collide with and annihilate each other. And this collision creates or releases a large quantity of energy in the form of gamma rays or the particles that are elementary.

To better understand this concept of the antimatter one needs to know more about matter. The term matter is made up of atoms which further are the basic units of chemical elements such as hydrogen, and helium or oxygen. 

The atom's universe is complex as well as it is full of exotic particles with properties of spin and "flavor" that physicists are only just beginning to understand. From a simple perspective we can say that however these atoms have particles that are called as electrons, and protons and neutrons inside of them. Each of these mentioned elements has a certain number of protons in each atom: that is the Hydrogen has one proton and helium has two protons and so on further.


Matter and Antimatter

In the heart of an atom which is known as the nucleus, there are basically the protons which have a positive electrical charge and neutrons which have a neutral charge with them. The  Electrons which generally have a negative charge occupy orbits around the nucleus. 

The orbits can change their position depending on how "excited" the electrons are which is meaning how much energy they have.

In the case of antimatter we can see that the electrical charge is reversed relative to matter that is according to NASA. The anti-electrons which are known as the positrons behave like electrons but have a charge which is positive. The Antiprotons that is as the name implies are protons with a charge that is negative. 

These particles that are known as "antiparticles" have been generated and studied at huge particle accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider which is operated by the CERN that is the European Organization which is for Nuclear Research full form of NASA stated.

The term "Antimatter is NOT said to be anti gravity," NASA added. "Although we can say that it has not been experimentally confirmed, the existing theory predicts that antimatter behaves the same to gravity as does normal matter."

When the particles that are the antimatter generally interact with matter particles they annihilate each other and usually produce energy. This has led the engineers to speculate that an antimatter powered the spacecraft which might be said to be an efficient way to explore the universe or the earth.

The institution that is of NASA cautions there is a catch which is huge with this idea: it takes about $100 billion to create a milligram of antimatter. While the research can get by on a lot less antimatter that this is the minimum that would be needed for application purpose. 


How to Make Antimatter

At CERN that is the protons with an energy of 26 GeV which is about 30 times their mass at rest collide with nuclei inside a cylinder that is a metal one which is known as a target. About four protons, that is the antiproton pairs, are produced in every million collisions. The antiprotons are said to be separated from other particles which are using magnetic fields and are guided to the Antiproton Decelerator where they are slowed down from 96% to 10% of the lights speed. They are said to be ejected and run through pipes beam into experiments that are to be trapped and stored. 

Even we can even talk about it if CERN, which uses its accelerators which is only for making antimatter. 

To make 1 g of antimatter that is - the amount that can be made by Vetra in the movie - would therefore take about 1 billion years.

The total amount of antimatter produced in CERN’s history is less than 10 nanograms - that is containing only enough energy that is to power a 60 W light bulb for 4 hours.

The concept that is of antimatter that first arose in theoretical analysis that is of the duality which is between negative and positive charge. The work that is of P.A.M. Dirac on the states of energy of the electron implies the existence of a particle that is identical in every respect but one that is with instead positive or negative charge. Such a particle, known as the positron is not to be found in the stable ordinary matter. However we can say that it was discovered in 1932 among particles which are produced in the interactions of cosmic rays in matter and thus provided experimental confirmation of Dirac’s theory.

The life expectancy or we can say that the duration of the positron in ordinary matter is very short. Unless the positron is moving that is fast extremely it will be drawn close to an electron which is ordinary by the attraction between charges that are opposite. 

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Explain Can Antimatter Be Made?

Ans: There is no amount that is macroscopic of antimatter has ever been assembled due to the extreme cost and the difficulty of production and handling. Theoretically we can see that a particle and its antiparticle for example a proton and an antiproton have the same mass but that are opposite charges that are electric and other differences in quantum numbers.

2. Explain What is Antimatter Used For?

Ans: The antimatter is said to be used in medicine.

These are injected into the bloodstream where they are broken naturally down that is releasing positrons that meet electrons in the body and annihilate. The annihilations that generally produce the rays of gamma that are used to construct images.

3. Explain Can You Touch Antimatter?

Ans: When the antimatter and the regular matter generally touch together they destroy each other and release lots of energy that is in the form of radiation which is usually gamma rays. If it's a small amount it's totally safe.  If it's a large amount the gamma that is radiation would be enough to kill us or cause serious harm.