IEO Syllabus for Class 11
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Synonyms are words or phrases that mean the same as other words or phrases in the same language. Therefore, can be used interchangeably to enhance value or elevate diction. An example of this is the words “large” and “big”. As these words are similar in definition, they are synonyms or synonymous.
Antonyms are words or phrases that mean the opposite of other words or phrases in the same language. This is also the opposite of synonyms. An example of antonyms are “up” and “down”. Since they have opposite or contradictory meanings, they are antonyms. Certain words don’t have antonyms (for example, “stapler”).
Analogies and Spellings :
Spelling refers to the way a word is written or spelled. An analogy is a comparison between two things, usually for better explanation or clarity. Ergo, in order to write words, you must be able to spell them correctly and in order to establish a connection between them, you must use an analogy.
One word :
One word involves using a single word to substitute a phrase with the same meaning. For example, using the word “Emigrant” instead of the phrase “someone who leaves their country to move to another one”. This is usually done to shorten speech and provide additional clarity.
Word Order :
Word order refers to the placement of words in a sentence, usually with regards to grammatical rules. Word Order is extremely important as it has a large effect on the meaning of a sentence. In most cases, this means first the noun, followed by the verb, and then the object.
A noun is a word that describes a specific (set of) person, place, object or concept. There are many types of nouns, including singular nouns, proper nouns, common nouns, etc. An example of a common noun is the word “woman”, and an example of a proper noun (a unique name) is Vedantu.
A verb is most commonly known as an “action word”. These describe what the noun/subject of the sentence is doing, and forms the main part of the sentence. An example of a verb is the word “sleep”. It can also be used to describe an occurrence and a state of being.
An adverb is a term that alters an adjective, a verb or another adverb. Adverbs are used to provide a description or more information to a sentence. A common example of an adverb is the word “very”, another is the word “common” as used to describe “example” in this sentence.
An adjective is a word that describes a noun, particularly by using one of its characteristics. For example, “red apple” in which the adjective is the word “red” which has been used to describe the apple. There are various types of an adjective, namely descriptive, possessive, demonstrative, interrogative, or indefinite.
An article is a type of adjective that combines with a noun, thus giving more information about the noun. We have only three articles in the English Language: “a”, “an” and “the”. These are used in different instances and cannot replace each other. For example, the word “an” can only be used before a noun that starts with a vowel.
A preposition is a word used to connect nouns or phrases to other words in a single sentence. A few examples of prepositions are the words “on”, “before” and “to”. There are different prepositions for different purposes such as time and place.
Conjunctions are words or phrases that connect other words, phrases or clauses. This can be done to form larger and more detailed sentences. The most commonly used conjunction is the word “and” but there are others such as “however” etc. There are four types of conjunctions namely; coordinating, subordinating, correlative and adverbial.
Punctuations of punctuation marks such as periods, commas, parentheses, etc. are used to separate words, phrases or sentences to enhance meaning and provide greater clarity. These are an integral part of any sentence. There are 10+ essential punctuation marks in the modern English language.
Voice is the word used to describe if a verb is active or passive by describing the relationship between the verb and the noun. When the noun/subject does the action, the verb is in the active voice. However, when the noun/subject has the action done to it, the verb is in the passive voice.
Narration, in writing or speech, is the process of recounting or retelling a sequence of events. There are two types of narration, direct and indirect. When your teacher tells you a story in Class, he/she is using the characteristic of a narrative to describe a series of events.
Concord refers to the grammatical agreement of the subject, verb and clausal elements of a sentence. This means that words should be appropriate to the number or gender of the noun or pronoun that they relate to. For example, If the subject is plural in meaning, the verb must reflect this by having a plural form.
Question forms :
A question is a type of sentence that is expressed in a form that usually requires an answer. There are 5 basic types of questions; Yes/No questions, Five W questions, Indirect question, Tag Questions, and Negative questions. An example of a question is “Are you alright?”.
There are three major verb tenses in the English Language; past, present, and future. These are mainly used to describe when an event happens and are further divided into four aspects: the simple, progressive, perfect and perfect progressive. Tenses are usually demonstrated using specific forms of verbs.
Conditionals, also called “if clauses”, describe the result of a situation or event that might happen or might have happened but didn’t. Mostly because they are/were dependent on a condition. There are 4 types of conditionals; the zero conditional, the first conditional, the second conditional and the third conditional.
Modal verbs, also called modal auxiliaries, are special verbs that behave irregularly in the English language. They give additional information about the verb that comes after it. Modals are used to display ability, possibility, permission or obligation. An example of a modal is the word “may”.
A collocation is a set of words that go together to form a definite relationship. A strong collocation implies that the connection between words is fixed (for example, collocations involving the words “make” or “do”), and a weak collocation allows one word to collocate with many other words. There are several types of collocations.
Phrasal Verbs :
Phrasal verbs are phrases that indicate actions. These are a combination of a verb and a preposition or an adverb. A few common phrasal verbs are “jump in” and “come down”. They can have both literal and idiomatic meanings, and can sometimes be separable or inseparable.
Idioms, also known as proverbs, are phrases or expressions that have figurative meanings i.e. they cannot easily be deduced from the individual words. An example of a famous idiom is “A dime a dozen” which is used to describe something very ordinary, not special.
Homonyms and homophones :
Homonyms are words that sound similar but have different definitions. For example, the words “right” and “write”. However, homophones are a special type of homonyms that sound similar, have different definitions and are also spelled differently. All homonyms are homophones, but the same cannot be said the other way around.
Words related to weather :
Words related to weather include those describing the conditions in the atmosphere as well as the instruments used to measure them. A few examples include wind, thermometer, sunshine, clouds, etc. Weather is a common topic for small talk and thus an essential part of the English language and effective communication.
A country is a nation with its own government, occupying a defined territory. There are currently 195 countries in the world (2019), however, this can change in the future. 193 of these countries are members of the United Nations, and 2 are non-member observer states: the Holy See and the State of Palestine.
Language and People :
Language is the manner in which people communicate with each other using either words or physical movements in a conventional manner. Different communities of people speak in different languages, and some people tend to speak in more than one language. The most spoken language today is Mandarin.
Global Problems :
Global Problems are those, that are faced by people regardless of which country they reside in or belong to. An important global problem today is climate change, however, others include inequality and poverty, etc. Although all nations face these issues, the degree to which they exist across the world may vary.
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