Courses for Kids
Free study material
Offline Centres
Store Icon
NEET 2022 | Class 12

NEET 2022 Important Chapter - Human Reproduction

Get plus subscription and access unlimited live and recorded courses
Human Reproduction

Human Reproduction

Last updated date: 23rd Apr 2024
Total views: 209.1k
Views today: 18.66k

The given document carries the Class 12 chapter named Human Reproduction as per the requirement of students preparing for the medical entrance exam. It will be beneficial  for the last-minute revision of the chapter as it contains the most important topics of the chapter from which the questions are asked frequently and also the practice questions to test your knowledge.

By reading this document carefully one can find out all the answers to the important questions related to the chapter such as what is reproduction, describing the anatomy of the male and female reproductive system, what is the menstrual cycle, and what is gametogenesis, etc.

Important Topics of Human Reproduction

  • The Male Reproductive System

  • The Female Reproductive System

  • Gametogenesis

  • Menstrual Cycle

  • Fertilisation and Implantation

  • Parturition and Lactation

Important Concepts


It is defined as the process by which the living organism gives rise to new offsprings. It is a very important event as it ensures the continuity of the species. In human beings, reproduction involves the fusion of gametes i.e. sperms and eggs.

Male Reproductive System

The human male reproductive system consists of specialised organs that are responsible for the production of sperms and male-specific hormones such as testosterone.

The different organs that consist of the male reproductive system are as follows:


  • These are a pair of oval-shaped organs enclosed in a pouch-like structure named the scrotum. 

  • These are responsible for the production of sperms and the male-specific hormone such as testosterone (the main hormone that regulates the male-specific characters as well as the production of male gametes such as sperms).


  • It is a pouch-like organ that hangs below the penis and behind it. The testis is located inside it.

  • It is present outside the body to maintain an ideal temperature that is required for the production and the survival of sperms.

Vas Deferens 

  • The sperms produced in testes are stored in a tube named the epididymis. Here, the sperms get matured and pass to the urethra through the muscular tube-like structure called vas deferens.

Accessory Glands 

  • These consist of seminal vesicles, the prostate gland, and the Cowper's gland. The secretions from these three glands mix together to form a fluid, called semen. It nourishes the sperms, increases the volume, and helps in lubrication as well.


  • It is a cylindrical tube-like organ that serves as a common passage for reproduction as well as excretion. It is the main organ that a human male uses for sexual intercourse with the female partner and then delivers sperms inside them.

Female Reproductive System

The human female reproductive system consists of specialised organs that are responsible for the production of ova and the female-specific hormone such as oestrogen and progesterone.


  • These are the primary sex organs of the female that are responsible for the production of female gamete (ova) and female-specific hormones.

  • They are located one on each side of the lower abdomen. 

  • Each ovary is about 2 to 4 cm in length and is connected to the pelvic wall and uterus via the ligaments. 

Fallopian Tubes  

These are the 10-12 cm long tubes that convey the ovum from the ovary to the uterus. The process of fertilisation (fusion of gametes) usually takes place in the upper portion of the fallopian tube that is in the ampullary region.


  • It is also known as the womb. It is an inverted pear-shaped organ which opens into the vagina through the cervix.

  • The wall of the uterus has three layers of tissue, perimetrium, myometrium, and endometrium. The layer that undergoes cyclic changes during the menstrual cycle is the endometrium, while the myometrium exhibits strong contraction during the delivery of the baby.


  • It is the distal-most portion of the uterus which connects the main body of the uterus to the vagina.

  • The cavity of the cervix is termed as the cervical canal. The birth canal consists of the cervical canal and the vagina.


  • It is a muscular and elastic tube that connects the cervix to the external body.

  • During sexual intercourse, it functions as the receptacle for the penis and delivers sperm to the fallopian tubes and uterus.


It is defined as the process which involves the formation of gametes.

  • Spermatogenesis is defined as the formation of sperms/male gametes.

  • Oogenesis is defined as the formation of egg/female gametes.

The table below shows the differences between spermatogenesis and oogenesis.



It occurs entirely in the testis.

It occurs mostly in the ovary.

It involves equal division of cells.

It involves unequal division of cells.

It begins at puberty.

It begins in the foetal stage.

It is a lifelong process.

It terminates with menopause.

Spermatozoa (product of spermatogenesis) are delicate, microscopic, and motile structures.

Ova (product of oogenesis) is a small round structure which is non-motile.

Menstrual Cycle 

It is defined as the reproductive cycle that occurs in female primates (monkeys, apes, and human beings). A variety of changes occur in the female body during this cycle. This cycle repeats on an average interval of about 28/29 days. The first menstruation begins at puberty and is called menarche.

Phases of the Menstrual Cycle 

There are basically four phases in the menstrual cycle. These include the following:

1. Menstrual Phase: During this phase, the uterus lining which is prepared for implantation starts to shed. This phase lasts for 3 to 5 days.

2. Follicular Phase: During this phase, the primary follicle starts developing into a mature Graffian follicle. The endometrium (lining of the uterus) also starts proliferating. The uterus prepares itself for another pregnancy.

3. Ovulatory Phase: During this phase, ovulation takes place, i.e., days 13-17. The end of the follicular phase along with the ovulation period is termed the fertilisation period.

4. Luteal Phase: It is the postovulatory phase where the fate of the corpus luteum is decided. If fertilisation happens, pregnancy starts. If fertilisation doesn’t occur, it marks the onset of another cycle.

Role of Hormones in Menstrual Cycle

  • Hormones is the chemical messengers released by various endocrine glands present inside the body. They are responsible for bringing varieties of changes inside the human body. 

  • Every phase of the menstrual cycle is influenced by varieties of female-specific hormones such as oestrogen, progesterone, FSH, and LH. The variation in the level of each of these hormones decides the phase that a woman undergoes.

  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are secreted by the anterior pituitary. FSH stimulates the growth of ovarian follicles that secrete the oestrogen. The Corpus luteum which is also known as the yellow body secretes progesterone.

  • The secretion of FSH and LH gradually increases during the follicular phase. Both these hormones stimulate the development of follicles and the release of oestrogen from them. The proliferation of the endometrium is stimulated by the oestrogen. 

  • The level of LH and FSH peaks in the middle of the cycle. LH induces ovulation (the process in which the ovules release from mature Graafian follicles). Just before ovulation, there is a sudden surge in the level of luteinizing hormone. 

  • After ovulation, the ruptured follicle develops into the corpus luteum which is also known as the yellow body that secretes progesterone; hence, the level of progesterone increases in the luteal phase. 

  • Progesterone is required for the maintenance of the endometrium for implantation (attachment of an embryo to the uterus wall). In the absence of fertilisation, corpus luteum regresses and progesterone level goes down which leads to the disintegration of the endometrium and results in menstrual flow.

Fertilisation and Implantation

Fertilisation is the process which involves the fusion of gametes (male and female). The zygote is the product of fertilisation which after passing through various stages of development results in  the production of the offspring or newborn.


Embryo Development/Cleavage 

It is defined as a series of rapid mitotic divisions that results in the production of multicellular structures named blastula from the single-cell zygote.

Implantation is defined as the adherence of a fertilised egg to the surface of the uterus wall. It is important for providing a suitable environment for further development inside the female body. It occurs after the 7 days of fertilisation.

Parturition and Lactation

  • On average, the duration of pregnancy in human females is about 9 months, which is termed as gestation period. At the end of the pregnancy, vigorous contraction of the uterus causes expulsion or delivery of the foetus, which is termed as parturition. It is a complex neuroendocrine mechanism.


  • Lactation is the process that involves the production and secretion of milk by the mammary glands. It helps the mother to feed their newborn.

  • The milk  which is produced by the mother during the initial days of lactation is called colostrum. It contains several antibodies that prove to be very essential to providing resistance against various kind of infections and for bringing up a healthy baby.

Solved Examples From the Chapter

1. Changes in GnRH pulse frequency in females are controlled by the circulating level of 

A. Oestrogen & Progesterone

B. Oestrogen & Inhibin

C. Progesterone only

D. Progesterone & Inhibin 

Ans: The correct answer is “A”.

GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) is a hormone that is secreted by the  hypothalamus and stimulates the anterior lobe of pituitary to release LH (luteinizing  hormone) & FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone). The main function that is performed   by the FSH is the development of follicles. 

The formation of estrogens is also stimulated by it. LH stimulates the corpus luteum   (yellow body) to release progesterone. When the level of progesterone and oestrogen  is high, then it inhibits the secretion of  GnRH in a negative feedback manner which in turn inhibits the secretion of FSH and LH.

The Key Point to Remember is - Oestrogen and progesterone hormones regulate the level of GnRH and work in a negative feedback manner.

2. How many sperms are produced from secondary spermatocytes?

Ans: Spermatogenesis is the process of formation of sperms which represents the male gametes. Fusion with the female gamete (egg), it results in the production of a zygote that develops into an embryo after passing through the various developmental stages. The sequence of spermatogenesis is given in the illustration below. The secondary spermatocytes are divided by meiosis II and give rise to two spermatids.

Key Point to Remember - One secondary spermatocyte gives rise to two spermatozoa by the process of meiosis II.

3. Which organ in human females is homologous to the male penis?

Ans: Clitoris is a tiny finger-like structure that lies at the upper junction of the two labia minora, above the urethral opening. It is part of the female external genitalia. This organ is capable of showing  erection and plays a key role in sexual stimulation and pleasure. It is homologous (same anatomical structure but performs different functions) to the male penis.

Key Point to Remember - Homologous organs are those that have the same anatomical structure but perform different functions.

Solved Problems of Previous Year Questions

1. Read the following events and place them in the correct order.

  1. Fertilisation                       D. Implantation

  2. Gestation                           E. Insemination

  3. Parturition                         F. Gametogenesis

  1. A, B, C, D, E, F

  2. D, G, E, A, B, C

  3. F, E, A, D, B, C

  4. E, F, D, A, C, B

Ans: The correct answer is “c”.

The correct sequence of the following events are as follows.




It is defined as the production of gametes (sperm/ova).


It is defined as the transfer of sperm (male gamete) into the female genital tract.


It is defined as the fusion of gametes (sperm and ova).


The process which involves the attachment of blastocyst to the uterine wall.


It is defined as the time period which is in between from conception to birth.


It is defined as the delivery of a young one.

Trick to solve easily - FIG + IPG (replace L with I in LPG)

2. Several hormones like hCG, hPL, oestrogen, progesterone, etc. are produced by 

  1. Ovary

  2. Placenta

  3. Fallopian tube

  4. Pituitary gland 

Ans: The correct answer is “B”.

During pregnancy, the placenta acts as the temporary endocrine gland and produces a variety of hormones such as hCG, hPL, oestrogen, and progesterone to support the pregnancy. Among these hormones, hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and hPL (human placental  lactogen) are produced during the pregnancy only.

Trick to Solve Easily - HCG and HPL are produced during the pregnancy, which is true for the placenta as well. 

3. Which part of the ovary in mammals acts as an endocrine gland after ovulation?

A. Germinal epithelium

B. Stroma

C. Graafian follicle

D. None of the above

Ans: The correct answer is “C”.

Ovulation is defined as the release of secondary oocytes from the Graafian follicle.The remnants of the Graafian follicle after ovulation are called corpus luteum/yellow body which is a glandular body that releases progesterone.

Trick to Solve Easily - Corpus luteum =  Remnants of the Graafian follicle

Practice Questions

1. The process in which spermatids mature into spermatozoa is called 

A.  Spermiation

B.  Spermatogenesis 

C.  Spermiogenesis

D.  None of the above

Ans: The correct answer is “C”. 

The major changes that occur during spermiogenesis or spermateleosis  are the formation of the sperm head with condensation of chromosomes and the formation of the acrosomal cap, which contains proteolytic enzymes that are required by the sperm for the penetration of the ovum and the formation of the sperm tail.

Spermatogenesis is defined as the process of the formation of sperms or male gametes. It occurs in the seminiferous tubule of the testis. This process includes the formation of spermatids and the formation of spermatozoa. The process of releasing sperms from the seminiferous tubules is called spermiation.

2. Differentiate between gametogenesis and embryogenesis.

Ans: The following describes the differences between gametogenesis and embryogenesis.



It is defined as the process which involves the formation of gametes.

It is defined as the process which involves the development of an embryo from the zygote (product of fertilisation).

It is the pre-fertilisation event.

It is the post-fertilisation event.

It occurs in the reproductive organs of the organisms such as the testis in males and ovaries in females.

It occurs inside the female parent.

It leads to fertilisation (fusion of gametes).

It leads to organogenesis (formation of organs).

Both mitosis as well meiosis occur.

Only mitosis occurs.

3. Define the terms menarche and menopause.

Ans: Menarche is defined as the time of the beginning of menstruation or the first menstruation. It occurs at the age of 12-15 years. It is repeated on an average interval of 28/29 days.

Menopause is the time when the female ovary stops producing eggs and there is no menstruation. It is attained at the age of approximately 50 years.


This article contains all the important information as per the requirement of students who are preparing for the  NEET 2022 and can be really helpful for quick and effective revision. It includes all the important concepts and topics covered in the Biology NCERT books, questions from the previous year's NEET 2022 exams, and  NEET 2022 mock tests as well.

See More
NEET 2024 Important Dates

NEET 2024 Important Dates

View All Dates
NEET 2024 exam date and revised schedule have been announced by the NTA. NEET 2024 will now be conducted on 5 May 2024, and the exam registration starts on 9 February 2024 and closes on 9 March 2024. You can check the complete schedule on our site. Furthermore, you can check NEET 2024 dates for application, admit card, exam, answer key, result, counselling, etc along with other relevant information.
See More
View All Dates
NEET Information

NEET Information

Application Form
Eligibility Criteria
Reservation Policy
Admit Card
NTA has announced the NEET 2024 application form release date on the official website The NEET 2024 Application Form is available on the official website for online registration from 9 February 2024 to 9 March 2024. Besides the NEET 2024 application form release date, learn about the application process, steps to fill out the form, how to submit it, the exam date sheet, etc online. Check our website for more details.
NEET 2024 applicants should be aware of the eligibility criteria before applying for the exam. NTA has released all the relevant information on the official website, i.e. NEET 2024 aspirants should have passed Class 12th or any other equivalent qualifying examination in 2023, or 2022, or students appearing in the Class 12th final exam in 2024 can also apply. For further details, visit our website.
As per the union government’s norms, NTA has released the NEET 2024 reservation criteria for different candidates’ categories (SC/ST/OBC/PwD), All India Quota, State Government Quota, Deemed Universities, and more. You can check more details on the Vedantu website.
NEET 2024 Admit Card will be released by the NTA in the 4th week of April 2024. Candidates can download the NEET admit card and hall ticket from the NEET official website i.e. For more details on the NEET admit card 2024, candidates can check Vedantu's official website.
NEET 2024 Study Material

NEET 2024 Study Material

View NEET Syllabus in Detail
Download full syllabus
Download full syllabus
View NEET Syllabus in Detail
NEET 2024 Study Material

NEET 2024 Study Material

View all study material for NEET
See All
NEET Question Papers

NEET Question Papers

NEET 2024 Book Solutions and PDF Download

NEET 2024 Book Solutions and PDF Download

View all NEET Important Books
NCERT Book for Class 12 Biology
NCERT Book for Class 12 Physics
NCERT Book for Class 12 Chemistry
H. C. Verma Solutions
See All
NEET 2024 Mock Tests

NEET 2024 Mock Tests

View all mock tests
NEET 2024 free online mock test series for exam preparation are available on the Vedantu website for free download. Practising these mock test papers of Physics, Chemistry and Biology prepared by expert teachers at Vedantu will help you to boost your confidence to face the NEET 2024 examination without any worries. The NEET test series for Physics, Chemistry and Biology that is based on the latest syllabus of NEET and also the Previous Year Question Papers.
See More
NEET 2024 Cut Off

NEET 2024 Cut Off

NEET Cut Off
NTA is responsible for the release of the NEET 2024 cut off score. The qualifying percentile score might remain the same for different categories. According to the latest trends, the expected cut-off mark for NEET 2024 is 50% for general category candidates, 45% for physically challenged candidates, and 40% for candidates from reserved categories. For the general category, NEET qualifying marks for 2024 ranged from 715-117 general category, while for OBC/SC/ST categories, they ranged from 116-93 for OBC, 116-93 for SC and 116-93 for ST category.
See More
NEET 2024 Results

NEET 2024 Results

The NEET 2024 result will be published by NTA on in the form of a scorecard on 14 June 2024. The scorecard will include the roll number, application number, candidate's personal details, and the percentile, marks, and rank of the candidate. Only those candidates who achieve the NEET cut-off will be considered qualified for the exam.
See More
Rank List
Marks and Rank
NEET 2024 state rank lists will be released by the Medical Counselling Committee (MCC) for admissions to the 85% state quota and to all seats in private medical and dental colleges. NEET 2024 state rank lists are based on the marks obtained in medical entrance exams. Candidates can check the NEET 2024 state rank list on the official website or our site.
The Medical Counselling Committee (MCC) will conduct NEET 2024 counselling at There will be two rounds of counselling for admission under 15% All India Quota (AIQ), deemed and central universities, AIIMS, JIPMER, ESIC, and AFMC. A mop-up round of NEET counselling will be conducted excluding 15% AIQ seats, while the dates of NEET counselling for 85% state quota seats will be announced by the respective state authorities.
As per the union government’s norms, NTA has released the NEET 2024 reservation criteria for different candidates’ categories (SC/ST/OBC/PwD), All India Quota, State Government Quota, Deemed Universities, and more. Previously, the Indian Government has provided NEET reservations to OBC (27%) and EWS (10%) candidates under All India Quota (AIQ). You can check more details on the Vedantu website.
NEET 2024 Top Colleges

NEET 2024 Top Colleges

View all NEET 2024 Top Colleges
Want to know which Engineering colleges in India accept the NEET 2024 scores for admission to Engineering? Find the list of Engineering colleges accepting NEET scores in India, compiled by Vedantu. 1990 Colleges are accepting NEET Score. It includes 706 Medical, 323 Dental, 914 AYUSH, and 47 BVSc & AH colleges. Also find more details on Fees, Ranking, Admission, and Placement.
See More

FAQs on NEET 2022 Important Chapter - Human Reproduction


1. What is the weightage of the chapter Human Reproduction in the NEET 2022 exam?

Human reproduction in combination with reproduction health carries 18% of weightage in the NEET 2022 exam.

2. Are the NCERT books enough for preparing for the NEET 2022 exam?

Yes, it is enough because it covers all the important topics and the concepts which can be important for the exam.

3. What are the important topics of the chapter Human Reproduction?

Human Reproduction is one of the most important chapters in terms of the NEET 2022 exam. Some of the important topics from this chapter are gametogenesis, hormonal regulation in males and females, menstrual cycle, the function of different hormones, etc.