Hibiscus - NEET Important Topic

VSAT 2022

Hibiscus : An Introduction

Vascular plants with stems, roots, and leaves are known as angiosperms. A flower contains the angiosperm's seeds. The vast majority of plants on earth are made up of them. The seeds grow into fruit inside the organs of the plant. They are also referred to as flowering plants as a result. The most developed and useful group of plants are angiosperms. They can develop as bushes, trees, herbs, and shrubs in a variety of settings. Let’s discuss more about Hibiscus.


What is a Hibiscus?

Hibiscus, often known as China rose, is an angiosperm in the Malvaceae family of angiosperms. Hibiscus is a cultivated plant that grows mostly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The botanical name of the hibiscus flower is Hibiscus rosa sinensis. It is mainly utilised as an attractive plant and flower for religious purposes, but it is also consumed as a tea in many parts of the world. Other plants in the Malvaceae family include cotton, lady's finger, mallow, and others. The mallow family is another name for the Malvaceae family.


Morphological Characteristics of Hibiscus Flower


Hibiscus Flower Diagram


Hibiscus Flower Diagram


  • As shown in the hibiscus diagram, there are different parts of the hibiscus flower that aid in various functions. 

  • Sepals, or pointed ends, are situated at the bottom of the flower. The flower's bud is protected by the green sepals.

  • Each flower has several petals that vary in colour depending on the species.

  • Animals and insects are drawn to the vibrant hibiscus colours. The flower's pollination is aided by this attraction.

  • Pollinators include bees and animals (birds) that assist in the transmission of pollen to the stigma, a process known as pollination.

  • The female component of the flower, the pistil, is responsible for seed production.

  • The ovary, stigma, and style make up the pistil. The pistil is a tubular organ with a lengthy length.

  • Pollen is collected on the stigma, which is located at the top of the pistil. The style is in the middle. The pollen moves down to the ovary through this region.

  • At the bottom of the blossom is the ovary. Some flowers have multiple ovaries, but the hibiscus only has one.

  • The ovary grows into the fruit and the ovule develops into a seed after fertilisation (pollen travels down to meet the ovules (eggs)).

  • The stamen is the male portion of the flower and is responsible for pollen production.

  • The pollen is released by the anthers, which are two tube-shaped structures. The anther is normally yellow, but not always.

  • Anthers are attached to a filament, which is a long, thin tube. These organs combine to form the stamen, the male component of the flower (anther + filament = stamen). The hibiscus flower has hundreds of stamens, while other flowers have only a few.


Floral Diagram of Hibiscus Flower

The floral formula for the hibiscus flower is Br Brl ⊕ ⚥ K(5) C5 A(∞) G(5). Every symbol and number in this formula has been given a distinct meaning and set of properties. As an example, Br represents the hibiscus as a bracteate flower, and Brl represents the hibiscus as a bracteate flower as well. This symbol represents the fact that hibiscus is an Actinomorphic flower. Flowers that have radial symmetry are known as actinomorphic flowers.


⚥ indicates that the china rose is a bisexual flower with both androecium and gynoecium. K(5), The flower's calyx whorl is referred to as K. K is represented by the total number of five sepals in the calyx whorl (5). The brackets in this example represent the gamosepalous state. This bracket denotes that all of the sepals have fused to form a tube-like shape. C5 represents the polypetalous stage of the corolla whorl, which has five free petals. The androecium whorl of the flower is represented by $A(\infty)$.


Economic Importance of Hibiscus Flower

  • The Floral Formula of Hibiscus or China Rose is one of the most important subjects in the study of plants and flowers, as well as in understanding the type and characteristics of a plant.

  • The blooms, as well as other parts of the hibiscus flower, are mostly employed in the production of medication.

  • Hibiscus uses include benefits for high blood pressure and high cholesterol, as well as for improving breast milk production, reducing infections, and a variety of other ailments, but unfortunately, most of these claims are based on little scientific proof.

  • It aids in the prevention of hair loss.

  • According to legend, the blossoms of the hibiscus or China rose, which are high in vitamin C and amino acids, miraculously enhance blood circulation under the scalp, stimulating the production of good hair growth.

  • Many individuals use hibiscus petals to produce their hair growth oil for this reason.

  • Besides, any plant's leaves, roots, or blossoms contain a variety of medicinal characteristics. 

  • Similarly, the Malvaceae plant's leaves and calyces have been eaten, and the blooms have been soaked for tea. 

  • Hibiscus or china rose has been used as a diuretic and mild laxative in traditional medicine, and it is also known that hibiscus flowers can aid with cancer, heart, and nerve illnesses.


Conclusion

Hibiscus is a blooming plant in the Malvaceae family, also known as the mallow family. Hibiscus' scientific name is Hibiscus rosa sinensis. The Hibiscus genus produces enormous, beautiful flowers and grows as herbs, shrubs, or small trees. The sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels are the four floral parts, from outside to inside.


The sepal, which resembles a leaf, shields the flower bud until it opens. The petal and the outermost set of flower components are found in the perianth. Bees and other pollinators are attracted to the brilliantly coloured petals. The floral formula for the hibiscus flower is $Br~Brl \oplus \emptyset$ ⚥ $K(5) C 5 A(\infty) G(5)$. They are used for a variety of purposes like food, medicine, and beauty.

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FAQs on Hibiscus - NEET Important Topic

1. What are the characteristic features of the Malvaceae family?

  • Epicalyx or bracteoles are the two types of flowers.

  • The androecium is made up of many stamens that are fused into a single tube-like structure with a monadelphous state.

  • These flowers' anthers are uniform and monotonous. The gynoecium is enclosed by the staminal tube.

  • The gynoecium has multicarpellary, syncarpous, and multilocular features, as well as being linked to the superior ovary and axile placentation.

  • The flowers of this family are brilliantly coloured and have extrafloral nectaries due to the occurrence of entomophilous pollination.

  • Pollen grains are large and spherical in shape, spiky, and contain monothecous anthers, which are one of the family's distinctive traits. 

  • Multiplication of five epipetalous elements is said to have produced many stamens.

2. What do you mean by a  floral formula?

Floral formulas are one of two nineteenth-century methods of expressing flower structure, the other being floral diagrams. Floral equations are mathematical expressions that describe the structure of blooming flowers. The number of components, floral symmetry, connotation and adnation, ovary position, and insertion are all depicted. Although the structure of floral formulae varies according to the preferences of specific authors and periods, the information they convey is frequently the same. To improve the beauty of flowers, floral formulae were developed at the turn of the nineteenth century.

3. What is inflorescence?

A cluster of flowers grouped on a stem and made of a primary branch and/or a series of branches is known as an inflorescence. Inflorescences come in a variety of shapes and sizes. The arrangement of branches and flowers, or the sequence and age of each flower as it blooms, determines the type of inflorescence. An inflorescence is a highly effective flowering arrangement that maximises the reproductive success of the plant. Furthermore, this flower arrangement encourages rapid seed dissemination.

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