The producers on our planet, plants are autotrophic in nature. Plants are designed in such a way that they can produce their own food from sunlight, water, and minerals in the soil. The two main parts of a plant body are the stem, the part that stays above the ground and holds the other parts of the plant, and the root which grows below the ground and helps keep the plant fixed in one place. The roots absorb minerals and water. Both these plant parts have many important functions on which the survival of the plants depend.
The stem of a plant emerges from the plumule of the embryo, exhibiting growth that is positively phototropic and negatively geotropic. Stems have nodes and internodes that facilitate the growth of different plant structures such as leaves, branches, flower buds, etc.
To facilitate fluid and nutrition transport.
Provide mechanical support to the plant body. It changes into a trunk as the plant grows into a tree. The trunk is the hard, brown part that gives physical support.
To provide an appropriate arrangement of branches and leaves.
Storage of nutrients and water.
Provide for the lifelong growth of the plant.
It facilitates the production of new cells and tissues.
Stems are composed of morphological structures- nodes, internodes, and axillary buds.
Roots are the major vegetative parts of the plants that are negatively geotropic. Roots develop from the radicals of the embryo.
Absorption of water
Storage of nutrients
Providing anchorage to the plants
Facilitating vegetative propagation
Roots are of various types like tap root, adventitious roots, lateral roots, fibrous roots, etc.
Let us look at the major differences between stem and roots.
Q1. What is the difference between Xylem of Stems and that of Roots?
Ans: Xylem in stems is endarch which means the protoxylem is directed towards the center in case of stems with metaxylem elements present at the periphery. On the other hand, xylem in roots is directed to the periphery, and metaxylem is present at the center, so it is exarch.
Q2. What is the one basic difference between Stems and Roots?
Ans: The basic difference between stems and roots is that the stems are positively phototropic and grow above the ground to bear leaves, branches, and apical buds. However, roots are negatively phototropic and grow away from light, towards the ground and bear root hairs and buds.