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NEET Important Chapter - Anatomy of Flowering Plants

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Anatomy of Flowering Plants

Anatomy of Flowering Plants

Introduction

This article is created by keeping NEET aspirants in mind. It contains notes and important questions related to the plant kingdom and it will be great for last-minute revision.

It covers all the important concepts such as the difference between monocot and dicot root, simple and permanent tissues, etc. and these concepts are short and crisp. Along with this, it contains FAQs regarding the NEET exam.


Important Topics of Anatomy of Flowering Plants

  • Meristematic tissue

  • Permanent tissue

  • Vascular Tissue System

  • Leaf


Important Concepts

Tissue

A tissue is a collection of cells with a common origin that collaborate to perform a common function.


Plant Tissue

1. Meristematic Tissue

It is a type of simple tissue that consists of a group of similar and immature cells (meristematic cells) which can divide and form new cells.

  1. Apical Meristem – present at the tip of root and shoot and results in the formation of primary tissues such as dermal, vascular, and ground tissues.

  2. Intercalary Meristem – They are meristematic regions derived from the apical meristems. It helps in the elongation of the organs and allows fallen stems of cereals to become erect.

  3. Lateral Meristem – It is present on the sides and helps in increasing the girth of the plant.

2. Permanent Tissue

Due to morphological, biochemical, and physiological differentiation, cells in these tissues have lost their ability to divide and have taken on a permanent shape, size, and function.

(a) Simple Permanent Tissue: The tissue is made up of similar permanent cells that carry out the same function. It is further divided into three types:

 

Simple Tissue Name

Structure

Function

Parenchyma 

  • It is thin-walled, similar to isodiametric cells. 

  • They may be oval, rounded, or polygonal. 

  • Cellulose makes up the cell wall.

  • Cells are packed tightly together or Intercellular gaps are small.

  • Storage of food.

  • Provides turgidity to soft parts.

  • Protection and checking water loss in form of the epidermis.

  • Forming water-absorbing epiblema in the root.

  • Secretion

Collenchyma

  • The cells are non-lignified refractile.

  • The cell wall possesses pectocellulose thickenings in specific areas.

  • Cells are often elongated and circular, oval, or angular in transverse sections.

  • Large central vacuoles are present.

  • Provide mechanical strength.

  • Provide flexibility to the organs and allow their bending.

  • Food storage.

  • Photosynthesis

Sclerenchyma

  • At both the end cells is long, pointed, and narrow.

  • Cells with thick walls and little or no protoplasm.

  • In the wall, there are a few to many pits.

  • It allows the plant organs to tolerate bending, shearing, compression, and pull caused by the environment.

  • Gives leaves firmness and prevents them from collapsing during temporary wilting.

  • Sclereids provide strength to seed coverings.


(b) Complex Permanent Tissue: They contain more than one type of cells and all the types of cells work together as a unit.


Complex Tissue Name

Structure

Function






Xylem

  • They are made up of tracheids, vessels, xylem fibres, and xylem parenchyma.

  • The main conducting part is vessels and tracheids. 

  • Protoxylem and metaxylem are two forms of primary xylem.

  • The protoxylem at the centre of the stem thus shows endarch condition.

  • In the roots, it shows the exact condition.

It conducts water and minerals from the root up to the stem through the stem.

Phloem

  • In angiosperms, Companion cells, sieve-tube elements, phloem parenchyma, and phloem fibres are present. 

  • Albuminous and sieve cells are present in gymnosperm instead of sieve tubes and companion cells.

  • Monocotyledons have no phloem parenchyma.

It conducts food synthesised in the leaves, to other parts of the plant.


Difference Between Meristematic Tissue and Permanent Tissue

Meristematic Tissue

Permanent Tissue

It is a simple tissue.

It can be simple or complex.

The cells are small and isodiametric.

The cells vary in size and form depending on the type of tissue.

Vacuoles are either small or absent. 

Permanent tissues are living cells and usually have a central vacuole.

Crystals and other cell inclusions are absent.

Cell inclusions such as crystals are commonly present.

Respiratory and biosynthetic activities are very high.

Both of them are at a low level.


Tissue Systems

It is a tissue or a group of tissues that are derived from a portion of meristem which performs a similar function.

On the basis of their location and structure, there is three tissue system in plants.


1. Epidermal Tissue System

  • This system forms the outermost covering of the plant body. 

  • It consists of the epidermis (made up of epidermal cells and stomata), and epidermal appendages such as root hairs, and trichomes.

2. Ground Tissue System

  • It forms most of the tissues between the epidermis and vascular tissues. For example, Cortex, Pericycle, Pith.

  • The tissues present in this region are simple tissues.


3. Vascular Tissue System

  • It forms a strand of vascular tissues called a vascular strand.

  • In gymnosperm and flowering plants, the vascular tissues occur as distinct patches called vascular bundles.

  • In roots, vascular bundles are radial and in stems it is conjoint.


Difference between Open and Closed Vascular Bundles


Open Vascular Bundle

Closed Vascular Bundle

It contains a strip of cambium in between the phloem and xylem.

Intrafascicular cambium is absent.


The xylem and phloem are not in direct contact with one another.

The xylem and phloem are in direct contact with one another.

Due to the activity of cambium, original or primary phloem and xylem move away from each other and secondary phloem and secondary xylem are formed in between.

There is no such activity.

It is present in the dicot stem.

Leaves and monocot stems have closed vascular bundles.

It can be collateral and bicollateral.

Collateral or concentric vascular bundles can be found.


Difference between Xylem and Phloem

Xylem

Phloem

It conducts water or sap.

It conducts organic food.

Xylem also provides mechanical strength.

Phloem has no mechanical function.

Xylem is present deep in the plant.

The phloem is normally found on the plant's outer side.

Plants that are older, in the xylem, frequently make up the majority of a plant's body.

Phloem is usually a minor component of the plant's overall structure. 


Difference Between Dicot and Monocot Root

Dicot Root

Monocot Root

Cortex is comparatively narrow.

Cortex is very wide.

The epiblema, cortex, and endodermis are peeled off and replaced by cork.

Cork is not formed. Cortex and endodermis persist. Only the epiblema is peeled off.

Casparian strips are more prominent.

Casparaian strips are exposed only in the young roots.

The number of vascular bundles varies from 2 to 5.

Xylem and phloem bundles might be as many as eight or more.

Xylem vessels are generally angular.

Xylem vessels are oval or rounded.

Dicot Root

Monocot Root


Difference between Dicot and Monocot Stem

Dicot Stem

Monocot Stem

Stomata have kidney-shaped guard cells.

Stomata usually possess dumbbell-shaped guard cells.

The hypodermis is made up of collenchyma which maybe green. 

Non-green sclerenchyma fibres make up the hypodermis.

Internal tissues are organised in layers that are concentric.

The concentric arrangement of tissues is absent.

The ground tissue is differentiated into cortex and endodermis, pericycle, pith, etc. 

The ground tissue is made up of the same type of cells. 

The vascular bundles are arranged in rings around the pith.

Vascular bundles can be found all over the ground tissue.

Dicot Stem

Monocot Stem


Difference between Fascicular and Interfascicular Cambium

Fascicular Cambium

Interfascicular Cambium

It is a primary meristem.

It is a secondary meristem.

Fascicular cambium is present even in the primary stem.

Interfascicular cambium develops only when secondary growth is to occur. 

Fascicular or intrafascicular cambium lies inside vascular bundles of the stem. 

Interfascicular cambium is formed in between the vascular bundles.

It is derived from procambium of stem apical meristem.

It develops from permanent cells of medullary rays through the process of dedifferentiation. 


Stem secondary growth

Leaf

Difference Between Dicot and Monocot Leaf

Dicot Leaf (Dorsiventral)

Monocot Leaf (Isobilateral)

The upper surface is dark green while the lower surface is light green.

The two surfaces are equally green.

On the upper side, stomata are few or absent.

On both sides, there are an equal number of stomata.

The stomata have kidney-shaped guard cells.

The stomata have dumbbell-shaped guard cells.

The mesophyll is differentiated into two parts, upper palisade and lower spongy.

Mesophyll is undifferentiated.

They show reticulate venation.

They show parallel venation.

Dicot Leaf

Monocot Leaf


Solved Problems Example From Chapter

1. Why xylem and phloem are known as complex tissues?

Ans: Xylem and phloem are known as complex tissues because they are made up of more than one type of cells and these cells work in coordination to perform various activities.


Key Point to Remember:

Xylem- Tracheids, vessels, xylem parenchyma, xylem fibres

Phloem- Sieve tube, companion cells, Phloem parenchyma, phloem fibres

2. How do tree trunks get their growth rings? What is its significance of it?

Ans: Concentric rings are formed by secondary growth. The action of meristematic tissue, cambium, causes secondary growth. The age of the tree can be determined by counting these rings.

Key Point to Remember: Concentric rings also known as annual rings and growth rings.

Solved Problems of Previous Year Question from the Chapter

1. The vascular cambium typically gives rise to one of the following anatomical structures?

a. Phelloderm

b. Secondary xylem

c. Periderm

d. Primary phloem

Ans: b. Secondary xylem.

The ring of vascular cambium produces secondary xylem on the inner side and secondary phloem on the outside. Both are in the form of rings.

Trick to Remember: Secondary xylem commonly known as wood

2. There is one old piece of dicot stem and one piece of dicot root. So, which of the following anatomical structures will be used to distinguish between the two? 

a. Cortex

b. Primary xylem

c. Secondary phloem

d. Protoxylem

Ans: d. Protoxylem.

The position of the protoxylem distinguishes the old dicot root from the dicot stem. Protoxylem is oriented toward the pith (endarch xylem) in the stem and toward the periphery in the root (exarch xylem).

Trick to Remember: First formed xylem

Practice Questions

1.  In plants, healing of wounds takes place by the activity of

a. Apical meristem

b. Secondary meristem

c. Parenchyma

d. Intercalary meristem

Ans: b. Secondary meristem.

It is a type of lateral meristem. Here, some of the permanent cells acquire the power of division (called dedifferentiation). This meristem gives rise to secondary tissues such as vascular cambium of the root, interfascicular vascular cambium of stem, cork cambium or phellogen, and wound cambium (from the cells surrounding an area of injury or wound).

Key to Remember: Secondary meristem responsible for growth in girth

2. The vascular cambium, on one side, produces xylem and on another side produces phloem due to its

a. Interfascicular position

b. Differential action of hormones

c. Gravitational force

d. Rapid division of cells

Ans: b. Differential action of hormones.

Intra and interfascicular cambium unite to form a ring of cambium known as vascular cambium in the stems of dicotyledonous plants, producing secondary xylem on the inner side and secondary phloem on the outer side. Hormonal influences play a role in this.

Conclusion

This post is written keeping in focus the NEET aspirants in mind. It covers all of the major concepts and provides clear explanations, making it ideal for quick and successful revision. It covers key ideas, concepts, and problems from previous year's NEET question papers, as well as NEET practice tests and Biology NCERT. Make sure to test your understanding by attempting the Practice question on your own.

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FAQs on NEET Important Chapter - Anatomy of Flowering Plants

FAQ

1. What is the weightage of the chapter Anatomy of Flowering Plants?

The chapter Anatomy of Flowering Plants carries 6% of the weightage in NEET.

2. What is the number of questions that are asked from Anatomy of Flowering Plants in NEET?

The number of questions that come from this chapter is 3.

3. How do I find out if my NEET application has been rejected?

You must log in to the registration window using the credentials to check that your NEET 2020 Application Form has been rejected. If you are unable to proceed through the confirmation page, or if you are unable to locate your admission card after it has been released, this could indicate that your application has been rejected.