NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 1 - Free PDF Download
Science class 8 chapter 1 is an interesting chapter that teaches students about the process of crop production and management. This is an important chapter from which many questions come during the final science examination. This is why it is suggested that students should work on NCERT solutions of class 8 science chapter 1.
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Access NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science Chapter 1 – Crop production and management.
1. Select the correct word from the following list and fill in the blanks.
float, water, crop, nutrients, preparation
The same kind of plants grown and cultivated on a large scale at a place is called _________.
The first step before growing crops is ________ of the soil.
Damaged seeds would _________ on top of water.
For growing a crop, sufficient sunlight, _________ and _________ from the soil are essential.
Ans: Water and nutrients.
2. Match items in column A with those in column B.
Food for cattle
Urea and superphosphate
Animal excreta, cow dung, urine and plant waste
Wheat, gram, pea
Paddy and maize.
The table showing the matched answers is as below,
e) Paddy and maize
d) Wheat, gram, pea
b) Urea and superphosphate
c) Animal excreta, cow dung, urine and plant waste
1. Give two examples of each.
Kharif crops - maize and millets.
Rabi crops - wheat and oats.
2. Write a paragraph in your own words on each of the following.
Preparation of soil
Preparation of soil:
The first method in crop management is soil preparation. This process is done by loosening the soil with the help of a plough which helps in ploughing or tilling it.
Loosening of soil particles adds humus and nutrients and increases the absorption of water and manure in the soil which increases crop yields.
After the soil preparation, the best seeds are chosen to sow in the soil for production.
Seeds are sown with the help of a seed drill which is in the funnel shape used in modern-day tractors to sow the seeds at a particular depth in the soil.
Unwanted plants which grow and interfere along with the other plants to reduce their yield are called weeds. Unwanted plants are removed by the process called weeding
We have to remove weeds as they compete with the plants in light and space and take up the nutrients given to the plant from the soil. Xanthium, Parthenium, etc. are some common weeds that affect the growth of plants.
Weedicides are used to control the weeds which is a chemical that only kills the weeds, not the crops.
After the crop harvesting, the last step in which the grains are separated from the chaff is called threshing.
“Combine” is a machine that carries out this threshing process. The combine is the combination of harvester and thresher which harvests crops and also separates the grains.
3. Explain how fertilisers are different from manure.
Ans: The table showing the difference between fertilizers and manure is as below,
Fertilisers are commercially available plant nutrients.
They are natural substances prepared by the decomposition of animal excreta and plant wastes.
They tend to be either inorganic or organic in nature.
They can be organic with large quantities and little amounts of plant nutrients.
They provide nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium for the healthy growth of plants.
They contribute to the organic matter and nutritional enrichment of the soil.
The addition of fertilisers to the soil requires special guidelines such as dose time and post addition precautions.
The application of manure does not necessitate any particular instructions.
A fertiliser seems to provide/add no humus to the soil.
Manure enriches the soil with humus and improves its fertility.
Its excessive use causes water pollution. It is unable to restore the soil's organic materials.
It helps to safeguard the environment and recycle farm waste.
4. What is irrigation? Describe two methods of irrigation that conserve water.
Supplying water to the crops in the field at various intervals for the growth of the plants is called irrigation.
Intervals differ from crop to crop, season to season, and are also affected by the type of soil and rainfall.
The irrigation sources may include ponds, lakes, canals rivers, and dams.
Two methods of which conserve water are drip irrigation and sprinkler irrigation:
Drip irrigation: It has an arrangement of pipes or tubes with small holes from which plants are watered drop by drop at the base of the root, so that water cannot be wasted.
Sprinkler irrigation: It has an arrangement of vertical pipes with rotating nozzles on the top for the distribution of water to uneven or sandy lands without wastage of water.
5. If wheat is sown in the Kharif season, what would happen? Discuss.
Kharif season is from June to October. If wheat is planted during this season, it is possible that the entire crop will be damaged due to a variety of issues including a lack of optimal temperature, adaptability, and insect availability.
The rainy season is included in the Kharif season, which is not conducive to wheat crop growth, as wheat grows well in the winter or rabi season. As a result, the wheat crop must not be planted during the Kharif season, but rather during the Rabi season.
6. Explain how soil gets affected by the continuous plantation of crops in a field.
Soil minerals such as potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus, as well as other nutrients are depleted as a result of persistent soil plantation. It takes up all the plant nutrients which take a long time to replenish.
These ions are important for all plants to undergo proper growth. If a continuous plantation is done these minerals won’t get time to replenish and the crop yield decreases immediately.
7. What are weeds? How can we control them?
Undesirable or unwanted plants that grow along with crop plants that reduce crop productivity are known as weeds. Xanthium, Parthenium, etc. are some common weeds.
Weeds compete for light, nutrients, and space with the crop. As a consequence, crop plants receive less light, nutrients, and space to grow. We have to remove weeds as they compete with the plants in light and space and take up the nutrients given to the plant from the soil.
This, in turn, reduces their productivity. Thus, various weeding methods are employed.
Some important weeding methods to control the growth of weeds are:
Weeds can be controlled using weedicides. It is a chemical, which is sprayed in the fields to kill all available weeds. Weedicides are not harmful to crops.
Weeds are also removed by tilling before sowing crops. Weeds are uprooted by tilling. The optimum time to get rid of weeds would be before they blossom and release seeds.
8. Arrange the following boxes in proper order to make a flow chart of sugarcane crop production.
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Ans: Sugarcane production involves several processes such as growing the crops by preparing the soil first by ploughing it, then sowing the seeds and using manures. Then water is supplied by the irrigation method. After the crop production, harvesting is done, then the crops can be sent to a factory.
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9. Complete the following word puzzle with the help of clues given below.
1. Providing water to the crops.
2. Keeping crop grains for a long time under proper conditions.
5. Certain plants of the same kind grow on a large scale.
3. A machine used for cutting the matured crop.
4. A rabi crop that is also one of the pulses.
6. A process of separating the grain from the chaff.
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1. Providing water to the crops - IRRIGATION
2. Keeping crop grains for a long time under proper conditions - STORAGE
5. Certain plants of the same kind grow on a large scale - CROP
3. A machine used for cutting the matured crop - HARVESTER
4. A rabi crop that is also one of the pulses - GRAM
6. A process of separating the grain from chaff - WINNOWING
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Learn More About NCERT Science Class 8 Chapter 1: Crop Production and Management
In this section, readers will be able to learn about everything that they need to know regarding crop production and management. This information will help students to solve questions that are included in this chapter.
Let’s start with the basics. A crop can be defined as plants of the same type that are grown and cultivated as a source of food. This is done in a large cultivable land. There are also different types of crops. These different types of crops are:
Rabi Crops: These crops are grown during the winter season, which is from October to March.
Kharif Crops: These crops are sown during the rainy season, which is from July to October.
Before any seed can be sown, the soil is prepared for the crop. This is done so that seeds can be properly sewn inside the land. There are several processes and tools that are used for preparing the soil. We have discussed those methods and tools in a list that is mentioned below.
Ploughing or Tilling
Ploughing or tilling is the process through which the soil is loosened and turned. This is done with the help of a plough.
As mentioned above, a plough is a device that is mainly used by farmers for various purposes like loosening the soil and adding fertilizers to the soil. A plough can also be used to remove weeds and scraping of soil. Usually, a plough shaft is the main part of a plough, which is made from a log of wood.
A ploughshare is another part of a plough and it can be explained as a triangular iron strip. The other end of the shaft has a handle. The other end is attached to a beam. This beam is pulled by the bull after it is placed on the neck of the bull. A wooden plough can also be operated by a man. These days many farmers are also switching to iron ploughs.
A hoe is a tool that can be used for digging up the soil. This tool can also be used to remove weeds and loosen up the soil before planting a sapling into the soil.
A cultivator is a tool that is attached to a tractor. It helps in loosening the soil. There are many farmers who prefer to use cultivators instead of ploughs as cultivators are faster.
After the soil is prepared, then sowing can start. Sowing is the process of planting seeds in the soil. It should be noted here that the quality of the seed is one of the most important factors that determine the yield of the crop.
This is why an individual should always select the best seeds. Good seeds can be selected by placing the seeds in water. If there are any dead and damaged seeds, then these seeds will float on water as they would be hollow. The good seeds will sink to the bottom.
Readers might also be interested to note that before the development of modern agricultural practices, tools, and machinery, farmers only used traditional tools. These traditional tools are scythes, shovels, ploughs, and pickaxes. The traditional tool that was used for sowing the seeds was shaped like a funnel.
The tool worked when the farmer would put the seeds inside the funnel. The seeds will go to two or three tubes that have sharp ends. The ends of the tool will pierce the soil and place the seeds inside the soil.
Seed drills are used these days for sowing. The seed drills are used along with tractors. This tool ensures that seeds are sown uniformly. All seeds are sown at a particular depth and are also covered by soil after sowing.
You might be interested to learn that a nursery is a place where young trees and plants are grown for the purpose of planting the trees and plants somewhere else. Many experts also consider nurseries as a repository of saplings.
After the seeds are sown, the germination of seeds takes place. After that, the plant starts to emerge from the seed and starts to grow. The next task for the farmer is to add manure or fertilizers.
It should be noted that manures and fertilizers are both substances that can be added to the soil to increase the Solution fertility of the soil. Fertilizers are made from inorganic salt, while manure is made from organic matter like human waste, farm waste, and cow dung.
Fertilizers are also manufactured in factories. Manures can be prepared on the farms too. Fertilizers only have to be added to the soil in smaller quantities. On the other hand, manures have to be added in larger quantities as the nutrient content is less in manure.
Fertilizers also do not provide any humus to the soil but manures provide a lot of humus to the soil. A farmer has to consider all of these differences before he or she can make a decision regarding whether he or she should use manure or fertilizers.
While making that consideration, one should also remember that the excessive use of fertilizers can result in pollution. It can also change the pH of the soil in some cases. Some farmers also choose to leave their land fallow. This helps in naturally replenishing the land of its lost nutrients and minerals. After some time, the land can be used again.
Another beneficial method for helping soil replenish itself is crop rotation. In crop rotation, the same crop is not grown continuously. This prevents the erosion of the fertility of the soil. Also, another major part of growing crops is protecting the crops from weeds.
Weeds can be defined as undesirable plants that grow naturally along with the main crop. The weeds are harmful because they compete with the crop by absorbing all the nutrients, water, light, and space.
Tilling is a process that can be done after sowing the crops. This process helps in killing and uprooting the weeds. One can also choose to remove weeds by physically uprooting the weeds from the soil or by chopping the weeds to the ground level. This is known as the manual removal method.
Some farmers also use weedicides, which are chemicals that are used for killing weeds. Students should remember that weedicides do not harm the main crop. After that, harvesting is performed.
Harvesting can be explained as the process of cutting the crop once it has matured.
There are two main methods through which harvesting can be done. These methods are:
Manual method where a sickle can be used.
The mechanical method in which a harvester, which is a huge machine, can be used.
Threshing is also the process that can be used for loosening the grains from the chaff. This process can be performed manually or with the help of machines. Winnowing is also a method for separating grain seeds from the chaff. But this method is done with the help of the wind. Because of the wind, the lighter chaff will fly away and the heavier grains will fall down.
Once the grain is separated, then the storage of the grains is left. Ideally, the grains should be stored in silos and granaries after harvesting. One should ensure that grains are stored in a dry place that does not have any fungal infestation or rodent infestation. Fumigation of the storage place should also be done to make sure that the storage place is free from microbes.
For students who do not know what granaries mean, it is the place where the freshly obtained food grains are stored. Also, animal husbandry is defined as the management and care of farm animals. This is done to obtain milk, eggs, or meat.
Download NCERT Class 8 Science Chapter 1 Solutions From Vedantu
There are a total of ten exercises in chapter 1 of class 8 science NCERT book. Each of these exercises deals with various topics. It is recommended that students should solve all of these exercises if they want to score good marks in their final science examination.
If you are having problems while answering questions, then you should download NCERT solved questions from Vedantu. This pdf file can be downloaded by students from all across the globe without having to pay anything! So, what are you waiting for? Score better marks than ever with the academic help from the experts at Vedantu!
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Answer: Yes, all answers are completely correct in the NCERT solved questions pdf. You can learn all the questions from the file without any hesitation. These answers were written by the most talented and experienced academic experts in India!
Question 3. Mention Some Examples of Rabi Crop and Kharif Crop.
Answer: Some examples of Rabi crops are pea and wheat. A few examples of Kharif crops are maize and paddy.
Question 4. What do You Understand by Irrigation?
Answer: Irrigation can be defined as the process of supplying water to crops at regular intervals of time.
Question 5. Define Weeds.
Answer: In the simplest terms, weeds can be defined as the undesirable plants that grow in a field naturally along with the desirable crop. Most farmers remove these weeds at an early stage of growth so that these plants don’t interfere with the proper growth of the main crop.