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Bromine Formula

Last updated date: 09th Apr 2024
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Do you know the Formula of Bromide?

The Bromine formula, also known as Dibromide formula or Brome formula. Diborane formula is the Br2 chemical name. It's the third-lightest halogen, and at room temperature, it's a seething red-brown liquid that quickly evaporates to form a similar-colored vapour. It has characteristics that are halfway between chlorine and iodine. Its name was derived from the Ancient Greek o ("stench"), referring to its strong and offensive scent. It was isolated independently by two chemists, Carl Jacob Löwig (in 1825) and Antoine Jérôme Balard (in 1826).

Bromine is a highly reactive element that only occurs in nature as colourless soluble crystalline mineral halide salts, similar to table salt. The great solubility of the bromide ion (Br) has led to its accumulation in the oceans, despite its rarity in the Earth's crust. The element is easily mined commercially from brine pools, which are predominantly found in the United States, Israel, and China. Bromine makes up around one-third of the mass of chlorine in the oceans.

This article will study bromide formula and Br2 chemical name in detail.

Bromine Molecular Structure

As we already discussed bromine molecule formula/bromine chemical formula. Now lets see the bromine molecular structure for better understanding.

Br - Br

Properties of Bromine Formula

Bromine Molecule Formula


Molecular Weight 

159.808 g/mol


3.1028 g/cm3

Boiling Point

58.8 0C

Melting Point

−7.2 0C

Physical and Chemical Properties of Bromine

  1. At room temperature, free bromine is a reddish brown liquid with a noticeable vapour pressure. The colour of bromine vapour is amber. Bromine is irritating to the skin, eyes, and respiratory system and has a strong odour. Even a brief exposure to intense bromine vapour can be lethal. Bromine, like the other halogens, exists in all aggregation states as diatomic molecules.

  2. At room temperature, 3.41 grams (0.12 ounce) of bromine dissolve in 100 millilitres (0.1 quart) of water. Bromine water is the name for the solution. It is a good oxidising agent, similar to chlorine water, but it is more useful because it does not break down as quickly. It extracts free iodine and sulphur from iodide-containing liquids and hydrogen sulphide. Bromine water oxidises sulphurous acid to sulfuric acid. In the presence of sunlight, bromine water decomposes, releasing oxygen, as shown in the equation:

  3. however, a less effective oxidising agent, owing to the bromide ion's lesser hydration compared to the chloride ion. A metal-bromine bond is similarly weaker than a metal-chlorine link, and this difference is represented in bromine's chemical reactivity, which is intermediate between chlorine and iodine. Organic bromo compounds are similar to their chloro derivative counterparts but are usually denser, less volatile, less flammable, and less stable.

  4. Bromine reacts violently with alkali metals, as well as with phosphorus, arsenic, aluminium, and antimony, but less so with other metals. Bromine adds to unsaturated hydrocarbons and displaces hydrogen from saturated hydrocarbons, though not as easily as chlorine.

  5. The element's most stable oxidation state is 1, which is where bromine is found naturally. However, the oxidation states of 0 (elemental bromine, Br2), +1 (hypobromite, BrO), +3 (bromite, BrO2), +5 (bromate, BrO3), and +7 (perbromate, BrO4) have been identified. Bromine has a high initial ionisation energy, and compounds with positive oxidation numbers are stabilised by suitable ligands, primarily oxygen and fluorine. Covalent bonds are found in compounds with the oxidation values +1, +3, +4, +5, and +7.

Uses of Bromine

  1. The light sensitive element of photographic emulsions is silver bromide, which is used alone or in combination with silver chloride and silver iodide.

  2. Ethylene bromide was used as an anti-knocking ingredient in gasoline containing lead.

  3. To fumigate soil and to fumigate houses, poisonous bromomethane was frequently used as a pesticide.

  4. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, inorganic bromide compounds, particularly potassium bromide, were widely employed as general sedatives in pharmacology.

  5. High-density drilling fluids, dyes (such as Tyrian purple and the indicator bromothymol blue), and medications are some of the other applications for organobromine compounds. Bromine, as well as some of its derivatives, is employed in water treatment and is the precursor to a wide range of inorganic chemicals with numerous uses (e.g. silver bromide for photography). Zinc–bromine batteries are hybrid flow batteries that are utilised for stationary electrical power backup and storage on a large scale, from residential to industrial.

Solved Example: 

Compute the molar mass of the Bromine compound.

Solution: Bromine formula is Br2

Its molecular weight I.e. molar mass is:

= 2×79.904

= 159.808 g/mol.

The molecular weight of Bromine is 159.808 gram per mole.


The Bromine formula, commonly known as Dibromide formula or Brome formula. It has the atomic symbol Br and is a halogen. Bromine has an atomic weight of 79.904 and an atomic number of 35. Antoine Balard and Carl Jacob Lowing, two chemists, developed dibromine in 1825-1826.

Brome is a reddish-brown liquid that is very flammable. It emits suffocating vapours and has a foul odour. It is water soluble and denser than water. As a result, it sinks in water. It's poisonous and corrosive.

FAQs on Bromine Formula

Question: What is the Purpose of Bromine?

Bromine is employed in a variety of industries, including agriculture, dyes, pesticides, medicines, and chemical intermediates. Some usages are being phased out due to environmental concerns, while new ones are being discovered all the time. Flame retardants can be made from bromine compounds.

Question: What Makes Bromine so Hazardous?

Bromine, while liquid, is corrosive to human tissue, and its fumes irritate the eyes and throat. Bromine fumes are extremely poisonous when inhaled. Organic bromines, on the other hand, can harm organs like the liver, kidneys, lungs, and milt, as well as causing stomach and gastrointestinal problems.

Question: What Effect Does Bromine Have on Your Skin?

Bromine liquid or gas can cause skin irritation and burns if it comes into contact with your skin. When liquid bromine comes into contact with your skin, it may cause a cooling sensation followed by a burning sensation.