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Facts About Elements

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Last updated date: 29th Feb 2024
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Introduction

An element is a pure substance composed of only one type of atom. The smallest piece of an element is the single atom. The chemical elements combine together to produce new substances. All the matter you see around yourself is composed of these elements. For example Iron, Aluminum, oxygen, gold, silver, and hydrogen.


Elements are the building blocks for all other matter in the universe. Iron, oxygen, hydrogen, gold, and helium are examples of elements.


Even though all elements are composed of the same atoms, they can take various forms. They can be solid, liquid, or gas depending on their temperature. They can also take various shapes depending on how closely the atoms are packed together. Scientists refer to these as allotropes.


For example- Carbon is one such example. Carbon atoms can form diamond, coal, or graphite depending on how they fit together.


Elements in the Periodic Table


Elements in the Periodic Table


Essential Element Facts:

  • The same elements can be found all over the universe. The elements found on Mars and in the Andromeda Galaxy are the same as those on Earth.

  • There are various forms of pure elements known as allotropes. Diamond, graphite, buckminsterfullerene, and amorphous carbon are examples of carbon allotropes. Even though they are all made up of carbon atoms, these allotropes have distinct properties.

  • The periodic table arranges elements in increasing atomic number (number of protons) order. The periodic table arranges elements according to periodic properties or recurring trends in the properties of the elements.

  • Mercury and bromine are the only two liquid elements at room temperature and pressure.

  • The periodic table contains 118 elements, but only 114 of these elements had been confirmed to exist. There are still new elements to be discovered.

  • Many elements are found in nature, but some are artificial. Technetium was the first element created by humans.

  • Metals account for more than three-quarters of all known elements. Metalloids and semimetals are nonmetals and elements with properties that fall between metals and nonmetals.

  • Hydrogen is the most significant element in the universe. Helium is the second most abundant element. 

  • Ancient man was exposed to several pure elements found in nature, such as carbon, gold, and copper, but these substances were not recognized as elements. The first elements were considered Earth, air, fire, and water – substances that we now know are made up of multiple elements.


Periodic Table


Periodic Table


Arrangement of Elements in the Periodic Table:

Mendeleev's periodic table is similar to the modern periodic table, but Mendeleev's table ordered elements by increasing atomic weight. The modern table arranges the elements in increasing atomic number order (which is not Mendeleev's fault because he did not know about protons at the time).


Like Mendeleev's table, the modern table groups elements based on common properties. The periodic table's columns are element groups. Among them are alkali metals, alkaline Earth, transition metals, basic metals, metalloids, halogens, and noble gases.


 The two rows of elements located beneath the main body of the periodic table belong to a subset of transition metals known as rare earth elements. The bottom row contains the actinides.


Groups in Periodic Table

Groups


Groups


Group 1: Alkali metals group

The first group (group 1) on the periodic table is the group of alkali metals.

The elements that make up the group of alkali metals include;

Lithium (Li)

Sodium (Na)

Potassium (K)

Rubidium (Rb)

Cesium (Cs)

Francium (Fr)


Group 2: Alkaline earth metals group

Group 2 elements on the periodic table are alkaline earth metals.

The elements that make up the group of alkaline earth metals are;

Beryllium (Be)

Magnesium (Mg)

Calcium (Ca)

Strontium (Sr)

Barium (Ba)

Radium (Ra)


Group 3-12: Transition and Inner transition metals group

  • Transition metals and inner transition metals are terms used to describe the elements that are found in groups 3 through 12 of the periodic chart.

  • These groups also contain the two bottom rows of the periodic table's elements.

  • Due to the fact that they exhibit a few distinct characteristics, they are arranged in two separate rows at the bottom.

  • The items in the bottom rows are actually just group 3's extension. Therefore, they are a part of group 3.


These components are categorised as distinct elements known as inner transition elements since they have a limited number of unique characteristics.


Group 13: Boron group

The 13th group on the periodic table is the boron group.

The elements that make up the boron group include;

Boron (B)

Aluminium (Al)

Gallium (Ga)

Indium (In)

Thallium (Tl)

Nihonium (Nh)


Group 14: Carbon group

Group 14 on the periodic table is the carbon group.

The following substances belong to the carbon group:

Carbon (C)

Silicon (Si)

Germanium (Ge)

Tin (Sn)

Lead (Pb)

Flerovium (Fl)


Group 15: Nitrogen group

The periodic table's group 15 represents the nitrogen element.

The substances of the nitrogen group are;

Nitrogen (N)

Phosphorus (P)

Arsenic (As)

Antimony (Sb)

Bismuth (Bi)

Moscovium (Mc)


Group 16: Oxygen group

Group 16 on the periodic table is the oxygen group.

The substances in the oxygen group are;

Oxygen (O)

Sulphur (S)

Selenium (Se)

Tellurium (Te)

Polonium (Po)

Livermorium (Lv)


Group 17: Halogen group

Group 17 on the periodic table is the halogen group.

The substances of the halogen group are;

Fluorine (F)

Chlorine (Cl)

Bromine (Br)

Iodine (I)

Astatine (At)

Tennessine (Ts)


Group 18: Noble gases group

The group of noble gases is the last group on the periodic table (group 18).

The elements that make up the group of noble gases are;

Helium (He)

Neon (Ne)

Argon (Ar)

Krypton (Kr)

Xenon (Xe)

Radon (Rn)

Oganesson (Og)


Solved Questions:

1. How many elements are there?

  1. 118

  2. 100

  3. 80

  4. 108


Ans: A) 118


2. Elements made of atoms.

  1. TRUE

  2. FALSE


Ans: A) True


3. What is the first element?

  1. Nitrogen

  2. oxygen

  3. Hydrogen

  4. Carbon


Ans: C) Hydrogen

FAQs on Facts About Elements

1. What distinguishes elements?

Atomic mass and number.


Each element has distinct properties. Each has a unique atomic and mass number because it contains a different number of protons and neutrons.


The atomic number is important in an element. Each atom has this number of protons. Every element has a distinct atomic number. Because hydrogen is the first element and has only one proton, it has an atomic number of one. Each atom of gold contains 79 protons and has an atomic number of 79. Elements have the same number of electrons as protons in their standard state.


2. What are two periodic table facts?

Metals produce the bulk of the elements on the periodic table. Metal groups include alkali metals, alkaline earth, primary metals, transition metals, lanthanides, and actinides. The current periodic table can accommodate 118 elements. Elements are not discovered or created in atomic number order.

3. Is water considered an element?

Because it is created of water molecules, water is a compound. The concept of water atoms does not exist. Water molecules are hydrogen and oxygen atoms in the exact ratio of two hydrogens to one oxygen.

4. Super parametric elements are what they sound like.

Superparametric elements are those in which the number of nodes used to define geometry exceeds the number of nodes used to define displacement.

5. What is the function of an isoparametric element?

The goal of the isoparametric formulation is to generate shape functions that ensure the compatibility of displacement between neighbouring elements while meeting the shape function requirements mentioned in the previous section.