Saturated Solution

Introduction:

Saturation, any of several physical or chemical conditions defined by the existence of an equilibrium between pairs of opposing forces or of an exact balance of the rates of opposing processes. 

Common saturated solution examples include the condition of a solution left in contact with the pure undissolved solvent until there is no further change in solution concentration, and the state of a vapor equally left in contact with the substance's pure solid or liquid form.

The water is saturated in the first case, when the rate at which the pure substance dissolves to join the solution in the solvent is precisely equal to the rate at which the dissolved substance exits the solution (e.g. by crystallizing).

The rate at which the completely condensed (liquid or solid) substance vaporizes in the second example is exactly the rate at which the vapour condenses.

A saturated solution or vapor contains the greatest concentration of a dissolved or vaporized substance that can be obtained under specified pressure and temperature conditions. While supersaturation (a condition in which concentration reaches the equilibrium value) can be brought on in certain situations, these solutions or vapors are unstable and spontaneously return to the saturated state.


Factors Affecting Saturated Solution:

The amount of solute that can be dissolved to form a saturated solution in a solvent depends on a variety of factors. The most prominent considerations are:

Temperature: With temperature, the solubility decreases. For example, salt can be dissolved in hot water much more than in cold water.

Pressure: Increasing pressure in solution can force more solute. This is widely used to remove liquid gases.

Chemical Composition: Solubility affects the nature of the solute and solvent and the involvement of other contaminants in a solution. For instance, in water, you can dissolve much more sugar than salt. Ethanol and water are mutually completely soluble.


Types of Saturation:

When solid solute (substance or particles) and liquid solvent are mixed, the only possible reactions are dissolution and crystallization.

There are three types of saturation. They are:

  • Saturated Solution

  • Unsaturated Solution

  • Supersaturated Solution


Saturated Solution Definition

A solution with a solvent which dissolves until it can no longer dissolve, leaving the undissolved substances to the bottom

Unsaturated Solution Definition 

A solvent (with less solute than the saturated solution) that dissolves completely, leaving no residual substances.

Supersaturated Solution Definition

A solution (with more solute than saturated solution) that includes more undissolved solute than saturated solution owing to its crystallization and precipitation propensity.


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How to Make a Saturated Solution

There's more than one way to make the saturated solution. You may be able to prepare it from scratch, saturate an unsaturated solution, or cause a supersaturated solution to remove any product.

Until it stops dissolving, add solute to the liquid.

Evaporate the solvent until it becomes saturated from the solution. Once the solution begins to crystallize or precipitate it will saturate the solution.

Add a seed crystal to a super - saturated solution so that extra solvent will grow onto the crystal, leaving the solution saturated.


Examples of Saturated Solutions

  • Soda is a source containing soluble carbon dioxide in water. Therefore carbon dioxide gas produces bubbles when the pressure is released.

  • Adding chocolate powder to milk produces a saturated solution so it prevents dissolving.

  • When molten butter or oil, salt can be applied to the stage where the salt grains avoid dissolving and create a saturated solution.

  • A saturated solution can be produced if you give sufficient sugar to your coffee or tea. You'll know when the sugar starts dissolving, you've reached the saturation point. Hot tea or coffee helps you absorb a lot more sugar than you can add to a cold drink.

  • To form a saturated solution, sugar can be applied to the vinegar.

Therefore, these are everyday examples of saturated solutions.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is a Saturated Solution Example?

Soda is a paste in water that contains condensed carbon dioxide. Adding chocolate powder to milk produces a saturated solution so it avoids dissolution. Salt may be applied to melting butter or oil to the extent that the salt grains resist dissolving, creating a saturated solution.

2. What are Saturated and Unsaturated Solutions?

The solution is said to be saturated when the solvent saturation point is reached and no more solute dissolves. An unsaturated solution is a solution that includes less than the full dissolvable amount of solute.

3. What are the 3 Types of Solutions?

There are three types of solutions that can take place in your body depending on the concentration of solute: isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic.

4. What Happens when a Saturated Solution is Heated?

If a saturated solution is heated, it becomes unsaturated as solubility on heating increases.