Organic Chemistry Class 11

Origin of Organic Chemistry and Inorganic Chemistry

The roots of organic chemistry are deep and are believed to be 200 years old. The invention of two essential compounds of chemistry organic and inorganic substances is dated back to the eighteenth century by John Jacob Berzelius. Organic compounds are derived from animals and plants. They were challenging to work with, in the restricted environment of the laboratory. Plus it can get decomposed pretty easily. The organic chemistry fundamental lies in three sources of organic compounds that are widely used:

  • Living organism.

  • Carbonised organic matter.

  • Invention/human ingenuity.

Carbonised organic matter is generally stated as fossil fuels. Humans have been using fossil fuel for 6000 years, but in the last 300 years, the usage has hiked and knows no boundaries now.


General Introduction to Advanced Organic Chemistry

Introductory Organic chemistry revolves around an element referred to as carbon. This element forms powerful chemical bonds to other carbon particles and many other factors such as nitrogen, hydrogen, halogen, and oxygen. Organic chemistry frontier depends on the element Carbon. It is a versatile element and makes covalent bonds. More than a million carbon compounds are known so far. Many compounds are made up of only carbon and hydrogen and are often called hydrocarbons. Carbon always forms four covalent bonds that may be present as four single bonds or two double bonds or one double bond two single bonds and vice versa.  As carbon can connect and form bonds, the structure of the compound also becomes a vital part of organic chemistry.


To understand the basic concept of the compound study of structural organic chemistry is essential. For instance, assume there are three organic compounds with identical molecular formulas. But varies from each other as it connects five carbon atoms in a different arrangement. These kinds of compounds have the same molecular formula, but different structures are called isomers.


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Structural Representation of Organic Compound

  • Complete Structural Formula - Complete structural equation exhibits all the atoms, how they are interconnected, and the type of bond that binds them in a molecule.

  • Condensed Structural Formula - As the name suggests, the condensed structural formula helps to save space and are generally the abbreviations of structural formulas.

  • Bond Line Structural Formula - The sketch of the bond line structure is clutter-free compared to the condensed structural formula. To understand the bond line structure, add more features to infer the overall compound structure.

Classification of Organic Compound

Acyclic or Open/Close Chain Compounds - Organic catalysis compounds are categorised as open chain and closed chain compounds in reference to the carbon chain. These compounds are also termed as Acyclic or open-chain compound, Aliphatic compound cyclic, Closed chain of Ring compounds, and Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes.


Aromatic Compounds - Animals and plants have exclusive orbit to benzene ring compounds. So, the producer of the maximum aromatic compound are plants, animals, and microorganisms. However, animals are conditioned to get aromatic compounds from plants directly or indirectly.


Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds - This type of compound was created in the twentieth century under the restricted environment of a lab. Many of the heterocyclic compounds are very important in agrichemicals, drug production, and biochemical processes.


Solved Example

Q. Describe Why Aliphatic Alcohols are not Said While Phenol is Acidic?

Ans. losing H+ ion from OH group of phenol leads to stabilisation by resonance. So, it will promote the loss of H+ ion and turn acidic.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. Define Structural Isomerism and Stereoisomerism?

Ans: Structural Isomerism - This phenomenon occurs due to the diverse arrangement of atoms in a molecule. Structural isomers refer to the bunch of molecules that share the same molecular formula.


Stereoisomerism - In this, the molecules share the same molecular formula as well as the chain of bonded atoms. However, they differ in the 3D orientations of their respective atoms in space.


It is categorised into two types:

  • Geometrical Isomerism - They carry the same structural formula but different arrangements of groups at rings or double bonds or a single atom.

  • Optical Isomerism - Optical isomers differ only with their interaction with plane-polarised light.

Q2. Describe the Nomenclature of Compounds that are Organic and Organic Chemistry.

Ans: The naming of the organic compound is more complicated than its discovery. Here is how they are named.

  • IUPAC Rules - IUPAC stands for The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. This authorised union has formulated a set of recommendations that needs to be followed while naming a compound. Nomenclature of chemistry organic strictly abides by the rules for naming organic compounds.

  • Types of Chemical Nomenclature - The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry upholds various councils that deal with chemical substance nomenclature. Chemical nomenclature is based on quoting suspected geometrical structures of atoms.