Morphology of Flowering Plants - Free PDF Download
Free PDF download of NCERT Exemplar for Class 11 Biology Chapter 5 - Morphology of Flowering Plants solved by expert Biology teachers on Vedantuas per NCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. Chapter 5 - Morphology of Flowering Plants exercise questions with solutions to help you to revise the complete syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.
The study of various external features of the organisms is called Morphology. Morphology of Flowering Plants deals with the form and structure of plants. When you talk about angiosperms, you mean flowering plants. Morphology of plants include:
Access NCERT Exemplar Solutions for Class 11 Science (Biology) Chapter 5 - Morphology of Flowering Plants
1. Rearrange the following zones as seen in the root in vertical section and
choose the correct option.
A. Root hair zone
B. Zone of meristems
C. Rootcap zone
D. Zone of maturation
E. Zone of elongation
a. C, B, E, A, D
b. A, B, C, D, E
c. D, E, A, C, B
d. E, D, C, B, A
Ans: (a) C, B, E, A, D
2. In an inflorescence where flowers are borne laterally in an acropetal succession, the position of the youngest floral bud in the floral axis shall be
d. Any where
Ans: (b) Distal
3. The mature seeds of plants such as gram and peas, possess no endosperm, because
a. These plants are not angiosperms
b. There is no double fertilization in them
c. Endosperm is not formed in them
d. Endosperm gets used up by the developing embryo during seed development
Ans: (d) Endosperm gets used up by the developing embryo during seed development
4. Roots developed from parts of the plant other than radicle are called
b. Fibrous roots
c. Adventitious roots
d. Nodular roots
Ans: (c) Adventitious roots
5. Venation is a term used to describe the pattern of arrangement of
a. Floral organs
b. Flower in inflorescence
c. Veins and veinlets in a lamina
d. All of them
Ans: (c) Veins and veinlets in a lamina
6. Endosperm, a product of double fertilization in angiosperms is absent in the seeds of
Ans: (b) Orchids
7. Many pulses of daily use belong to one of the families below (tick the correct answer)
Ans: (b) Fabaceae
8. The placenta is attached to the developing seed near the
Ans: (b) Hilum
9. Which of the following plants is used to extract the blue dye?
Ans: (b) Indigofera
10. Match the following and choose the correct option
A. Aleurone layer
i. without fertilization
B. Parthenocarpic fruit
iii. Double fertilization
a. A-i, B-ii, C-iii, D-iv
b. A-ii, B-i, C-iv, D-iii
c. A-iv, B-ii, C-i, D-iii
d. A-ii, B-iv, C-i, D-iii
Ans: (b) A-ii, B-i, C-iv, D-iii
Very Short Answer type Questions
1. Roots obtain oxygen from air in the soil for respiration. In the absence or deficiency of \[O_2\], root growth is restricted or completely stopped. How do the plants growing in marshlands or swamps obtain their \[O_2\] required for root respiration?
Ans: Pneumatophores are found in plants that thrive in marshes or swamps. These are roots that have grown vertically. Because these roots are hollow, air can enter via them. As a result, pneumatophores assist swamp plants in obtaining oxygen for root respiration.
2. Write floral formula for a flower which, is bisexual; actinomorphic; pentamerous sepal, petal, stamens free with ovary, syncarpous, superior, trilocular with axile placentation.
3. In Opuntia the stem is modified into a flattened green structure to perform the function of leaves (i.e., photosynthesis). Cite two other examples of modifications of plant parts for the purpose of photosynthesis.
Ans: Euphorbia's stem is a fleshy, cylindrical structure. The presence of chlorophyll in this plant's stem allows it to carry out photosynthesis.
4. In swampy areas like the Sunderbans in West Bengal, plants bear special kind of roots called _____________.
5. In aquatic plants like Pistia and Eichhornia, leaves and roots are found near _____________.
Ans: the surface of water.
6. Reticulate and parallel venation are characteristic of _____________ and _____________ respectively.
Ans: monocot, dicot
7. In epigynous flower, ovary is situated below the _____________.
8. Add the missing floral organs of the given floral formula of Fabaceae.
9. Name the body part modified for food storage in the following
a. Carrot __________________________
Ans: Tap Root
b. Colocasia __________________________
c. Sweet potato __________________________
Ans: Adventitious Roots
d. Asparagus __________________________
e. Radish __________________________
Ans: Tap Root
f. Potato __________________________
g. Dahlia __________________________
Ans: Adventitious Roots
h. Turmeric __________________________
i. Gladiolus __________________________
j. Ginger __________________________
k. Portulaca __________________________
Ans: Adventitious Roots
Short Answer type Questions
1. Give two examples of roots that develop from different parts of the angiospermic plant other than the radicle.
Ans: When roots grow from many plant sections in angiosperm, they are known as adventitious roots. The following are two examples of such roots:
Banyan's Pro Roots:
The banyan tree's branches produce prop roots.
They saturate the soil as they descend into it.
The increased mechanical support given by these roots is beneficial to the banyan tree.
Stilt Roots in Maize:
In maize plants, stilt roots develop from nodes just above the ground. These roots penetrate the earth and offer the maize plant with increased mechanical support.
2. The essential functions of roots are anchorage and absorption of water and minerals in the terrestrial plant. What functions are associated with the roots of aquatic plants. How are roots of aquatic plants and terrestrial plants different?
Ans: The primary function of roots is to provide anchoring and to absorb water and minerals. Aquatic vegetation, on the other hand, does not have a problem with water supply. As a result, most aquatic plants' roots are underdeveloped. In free-floating plants, roots are rare and in the form of fine hairs. Anchorage is provided by roots in submerged plants.
3. Draw diagrams of a typical monocot and dicot leaves to show their venation pattern.
4. A typical angiosperm flower consists of four floral parts. Give the names of the floral parts and their arrangements sequentially
Ans: Starting at the periphery, the arrangement of four floral sections is as follows:
Green leaf-like sepals make up the calyx.
The petals of the corolla are brightly coloured.
Stamens make up the androecium (filament and anther).
The gynoecium is made up of carpel (stima, style, and ovary).
5. Given below are floral formulae of some plants. Draw floral diagrams from these formulae.
6. Reticulate venation is found in dicot leaves while in monocot leaves venation is of parallel type. Mention one exception to this generalization.
Ans: Exceptions to this rule include the following:
Monocot with reticulate venation: Alocasia, Smilax
Dicot with parallel venation: Calophyllum, Corymbium
7. You have heard about several insectivorous plants that feed on insects.
Nepenthes or the pitcher plant is one such example, which usually grows in shallow water or in marsh lands. What part of the plant is modified into a ‘pitcher’? How does this modification help the plant for food even though it can photosynthesize like any other green plant?
Ans: The leaves of the pitcher plant are shaped like a pitcher. With the pitcher, you'll get a cover produced from the lamina's apex. The front part of the petiole resembles a tendon. It maintains the vertical position of the pitcher.
Nitrogen deficiency exists in marshlands' soil. These plants need nitrogenous materials to synthesise protein, despite photosynthesis. Insects are a good source of protein, therefore eating them gives the nitrogenous nutrients that these plants need.
8. Mango and coconut are ‘drupe’ type of fruits. In mango fleshy mesocarp is edible. What is the edible part of coconut? What does milk of tender coconut represent?
Ans: The endosperm is the component of the coconut that can be eaten. The liquid form of the oily endosperm is tender coconut milk.
9. How can you differentiate between free central and axile placentation?
In the ovary, there is only one chamber.
The ovary has a lot of chambers.
The central axis is where the ovules are carried.
The axile column is formed by septa that extend from the central axis and come together. The axile column is where the ovules are connected.
10. Tendrils are found in the following plants. Identify whether they are stem
tendrils or leaf tendrils.
Ans: Stem Tendril
Ans: Leaf Tendril
Ans: Stem Tendril
Ans: Stem Tendril
Ans: Stem Tendril
11. Why is maize grain usually called a fruit and not a seed?
Ans: The seed coat of a maize grain is membranous and attached to the fruit wall. A maize grain is actually a ripened ovary with a ripened ovule. As a consequence, a maize grain is more often known as a fruit than a seed.
12. Tendrils of grapevines are homologous to the tendril of pumpkins but are analogous to that of pea. Justify the above statement.
Ans: Homologous organs comprise similar basic parts but execute diverse functions. Comparable organs are those that have distinct basic components yet perform the same function. Grapevine and pumpkin tendrils are homologous organs because they are modified stems. Pea tendrils, on the other hand, are modified leaves that resemble grapevine tendrils in appearance.
13. Rhizome of ginger is like the roots of other plants that grows underground. Despite this fact ginger is a stem and not a root. Justify.
Ans: The following characteristics of the ginger rhizome indicate that it is a stem rather than a root:
Scaly leaves are present.
Nodes and internodes are present.
The presence of adversive roots
14. Differentiate between
a. Bract and Bracteole
Ans: Bract is the leaf-like structure in the axil, while bracteole is carried on the flower stalk.
b. Pulvinus and petiole
Ans: The petiole is the leaf stalk, whereas the pulvinus is the inflated region of the leaf base.
c. Pedicel and peduncle
Ans: The flower stalk is known as the pedicel, whereas the stalk of the entire inflorescence is known as the peduncle.
d. Spike and spadix
Ans: Spikes and spadixes are both types of inflorescence. Sessile blooms form a spike on an extended peduncle. The peduncle is also not meaty. In spadix, one to a few massive bracts termed spathes encircle the whole flower. In spadix, the peduncle is meaty.
e. Stamen and staminoid
Ans: The stamen is the male reproductive organ in flowers whereas Staminoid is the name given to the sterile stamen.
f. Pollen and pollenium
Ans: Pollen is the male gamete found in flowers. Pollenium is a group of pollen grains from a single bloom. A sticky substance binds the pollen grains in a pollenium, and all of the pollen grains are transferred together.
Long Answer Type Questions
1. Distinguish between families Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Liliaceae on the basis of gynoecium characteristics (with figures). Also write economic importance of any one of the above family.
Superior and unilocular ovary
Superior and bilocular ovary
Economic Importance of Solanaceae:
The Solanaceae family includes many important fruits and vegetables, including brinjal, tomato, and potato.
Chilli, a popular spice, is a member of this family.
This family includes therapeutic herbs including Belladona and Ashwagandha.
Petunia, an attractive plant, is a member of this family.
2. Describe various stem modifications associated with food storage, climbing and protection.
Ans: Modifications of Stem for food storage:
Rhizome: A rhizome is a modified subterranean stem. It has a horizontal growth pattern and stores food. There are nodes, internodes, and scaly leaves on it. There are buds present that produce aerial shoots. Ginger, turmeric, and banana are just a few examples.
Tuber: Tubers are underground branches that produce tubers. Tubers have nodes and internodes that can be viewed. Nodes appear as little depressions, which are referred to as eyes. These 'eyes' are responsible for vegetative propagation. Example: Consider the potato.
Corn: A corn is a modified subterranean stem. It grows in a vertical direction.
There are nodes and internodes in it. Examples of the same may include Colocasia.
Bulb: The underground stem has the appearance of a bulb.
To store food, the internode is shortened to permit the leaves to become thick and meaty. Example: Consider the onion.
Modifications of stem for climbing:
Tendril: The axillary bud of certain plants gets extended and coiled, forming tendrils. Tendril wraps itself around a support and therefore aids the plant's ascent.
Grapevine and pumpkin are two examples.
Modification of Stem for Protection:
Thorn: A modified thorn can be found in the leaf axil or at the stem's apex. Due to the thorns, grazing animals cannot injure the plant. Duranta and Calamus are two examples.
3. Stolon, offset and rhizome are different forms of stem modifications. How can these modified forms of stem be distinguished from each other?
The upward growth of the stem is followed by the downward growth of the stem.
Daughter plants emerge from offsets and split off to form new individuals.
Stem can extend underground and in any direction.
Vegetative propagation is the goal of the modification.
Vegetative propagation is the goal of the modification.
The goal of the modification is to improve food storage.
4. The mode of arrangements of sepals or petals in a floral bud is known as aestivation. Draw the various types of aestivation possible for a typical pentamerous flower.
5. The arrangements of ovules within the ovary is known as placentation. What does the term placenta refer to? Name and draw various types of placentations in the flower as seen in T.S. or V.S.
Ans: The placenta is a cushion-like flattened tissue to which one or even more ovules are attached. It nourishes the developing embryo.
6. Sunflower is not a flower. Explain
Ans: Sunflowers are a group of flowers, not a single flower. In actuality, what looks to be a single flower is actually an inflorescence, which is a group or bunch of very small blooms. These flowers are arranged in a unique way on a receptacle. Capitulum is the name for this form of inflorescence. The following are the main characteristics of capitulum.
The receptacle has been flattened.
On the receptacle, there are several tiny, sessile florets.
The florets that are the newest are in the centre, whereas those that are the oldest are in the periphery.
Sunflower florets are divided into two types: ray florets and disc florets.
The receptacle's rim is covered in ray florets. These have a yellow colour to them.
The disc florets are located in the centre. They are actinomorphic and bisexual
Sunflower is an inflorescence, not a flower, as evidenced by the characteristics listed above.
7. How do you distinguish between hypogeal germination and epigeal germination? What is the role of cotyledon (s) and the endosperm in the germination of seeds?
Epicotyl elongation and rapid growth.
Elongation of the hypocotyl and rapid development.
Cotyledons are plants that live in the soil.
Cotyledons are plants that grow above the ground.
Cotyledons tend to be non-green and non-photosynthetic.
Cotyledons turn green and start photosynthesizing.
Examples: Bean, Castor.
Examples: Rice, Maize.
The Role of Cotyledons and Endosperm:
Cotyledons and endosperm serve as a food storage system. During germination, the food in them becomes accessible to the embryo. The seedling starts photosynthesis when the first set of leaves emerges. Endosperm and cotyledons provide food until then.
8. Seeds of some plants germinate immediately after shedding from the plants while in other plants they require a period of rest before germination. The later phenomena is called as dormancy. Give the reasons for seed dormancy and some methods to break it.
Ans: Reasons for seed dormancy:
Seed coats are tough.
Water cannot be absorbed through impermeable layers.
ABA slows germination and restricts development.
Certain seeds have an underdeveloped embryo, which causes germination to be delayed.
Methods to break seed dormancy:
Temperature as well as other environmental factors can cause physical dormancy to be disrupted. When a seed goes through the intestines of an animal, it loses its physical dormancy.
External factors assist in breaking mechanical dormancy. An animal, for instance, could fracture the hard seed covering.
Enzymatic activities break chemical dormancy.
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FAQs on NCERT Exemplar for Class 11 Biology Chapter-5 (Book Solutions)
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4. What is the use of Class 11 Chapter 5 Morphology of flowering plants?
Chapter 5 Morphology of flowering plants teaches you about the structure of flowers and the function of the different parts like stem, roots, leaf, etc. Each chapter has importance when we talk about class 11. Class 11 and 12 together make your career. What we learn during these two years becomes a medium of scoring a high percentage of marks. Morphology plays an important part when we prepare for competitive exams. This chapter cannot leave our sight after finishing class 11. It makes a base to understand botany in the higher class.
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