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NCERT Exemplar for Class 11 Biology Chapter-5 (Book Solutions)

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Morphology of Flowering Plants - Free PDF Download

Free PDF download of NCERT Exemplar for Class 11 Biology Chapter 5 - Morphology of Flowering Plants solved by expert Biology teachers on Vedantu as per NCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. Chapter 5 - Morphology of Flowering Plants exercise questions with solutions to help you to revise the complete syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.


The study of various external features of the organisms is called Morphology. Morphology of Flowering Plants deals with the form and structure of plants. When you talk about angiosperms, you mean flowering plants. Morphology of plants include:

  • Roots 

  • Stems 

  • Flowers 

  • Leaves 

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Competitive Exams after 12th Science

Access NCERT Exemplar Solutions for Class 11 Science (Biology) Chapter 5 - Morphology of Flowering Plants

1. Rearrange the following zones as seen in the root in vertical section and

choose the correct option.

A. Root hair zone

B. Zone of meristems

C. Rootcap zone

D. Zone of maturation

E. Zone of elongation

Options:

a. C, B, E, A, D

b. A, B, C, D, E

c. D, E, A, C, B

d. E, D, C, B, A

Ans: (a) C, B, E, A, D


2. In an inflorescence where flowers are borne laterally in an acropetal succession, the position of the youngest floral bud in the floral axis shall be

a. Proximal

b. Distal

c. Intercalary

d. Any where

Ans: (b) Distal


3. The mature seeds of plants such as gram and peas, possess no endosperm, because

a. These plants are not angiosperms

b. There is no double fertilization in them

c. Endosperm is not formed in them

d. Endosperm gets used up by the developing embryo during seed development

Ans: (d) Endosperm gets used up by the developing embryo during seed development


4. Roots developed from parts of the plant other than radicle are called

a. Taproots

b. Fibrous roots

c. Adventitious roots

d. Nodular roots

Ans: (c) Adventitious roots


5. Venation is a term used to describe the pattern of arrangement of

a. Floral organs

b. Flower in inflorescence

c. Veins and veinlets in a lamina

d. All of them

Ans: (c) Veins and veinlets in a lamina


6. Endosperm, a product of double fertilization in angiosperms is absent in the seeds of

a. Coconut

b. Orchids

c. Maize

d. Castor

Ans: (b) Orchids


7. Many pulses of daily use belong to one of the families below (tick the correct answer)

a. Solanaceae

b. Fabaceae

c. Liliaceae

d. Poaceae

Ans: (b) Fabaceae


8. The placenta is attached to the developing seed near the

a. Testa

b. Hilum

c. Micropyle

d. Chalaza

Ans: (b) Hilum


9. Which of the following plants is used to extract the blue dye?

a. Trifolium

b. Indigofera

c. Lupin

d. Cassia

Ans: (b) Indigofera


10. Match the following and choose the correct option

Column I

Column II

A. Aleurone layer

i. without fertilization

B. Parthenocarpic fruit 

ii. Nutrition

C. Ovule 

iii. Double fertilization

D. Endosperm

iv. Seed


Options:

a. A-i, B-ii, C-iii, D-iv

b. A-ii, B-i, C-iv, D-iii

c. A-iv, B-ii, C-i, D-iii

d. A-ii, B-iv, C-i, D-iii

Ans: (b) A-ii, B-i, C-iv, D-iii


Very Short Answer type Questions

1. Roots obtain oxygen from air in the soil for respiration. In the absence or deficiency of \[O_2\], root growth is restricted or completely stopped. How do the plants growing in marshlands or swamps obtain their \[O_2\] required for root respiration?

Ans: Pneumatophores are found in plants that thrive in marshes or swamps. These are roots that have grown vertically. Because these roots are hollow, air can enter via them. As a result, pneumatophores assist swamp plants in obtaining oxygen for root respiration.


2. Write floral formula for a flower which, is bisexual; actinomorphic; pentamerous sepal, petal, stamens free with ovary, syncarpous, superior, trilocular with axile placentation.


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Ans:


3. In Opuntia the stem is modified into a flattened green structure to perform the function of leaves (i.e., photosynthesis). Cite two other examples of modifications of plant parts for the purpose of photosynthesis.

Ans: Euphorbia's stem is a fleshy, cylindrical structure. The presence of chlorophyll in this plant's stem allows it to carry out photosynthesis.


4. In swampy areas like the Sunderbans in West Bengal, plants bear special kind of roots called _____________.

Ans: Pneumatophores


5. In aquatic plants like Pistia and Eichhornia, leaves and roots are found near _____________.

Ans: the surface of water. 


6. Reticulate and parallel venation are characteristic of _____________ and _____________ respectively.

Ans: monocot, dicot


7. In epigynous flower, ovary is situated below the _____________.

Ans: thalamus


8. Add the missing floral organs of the given floral formula of Fabaceae.


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Ans:


9. Name the body part modified for food storage in the following

a. Carrot __________________________

Ans: Tap Root


b. Colocasia __________________________

Ans: Stem


c. Sweet potato __________________________

Ans: Adventitious Roots


d. Asparagus __________________________

Ans: Root


e. Radish __________________________

Ans: Tap Root


f. Potato __________________________

Ans: Stem


g. Dahlia __________________________

Ans: Adventitious Roots


h. Turmeric __________________________

Ans: Stem


i. Gladiolus __________________________

Ans: Stem


j. Ginger __________________________

Ans: Stem


k. Portulaca __________________________ 

Ans: Adventitious Roots


Short Answer type Questions 

1. Give two examples of roots that develop from different parts of the angiospermic plant other than the radicle.

Ans: When roots grow from many plant sections in angiosperm, they are known as adventitious roots. The following are two examples of such roots:

Banyan's Pro Roots:

The banyan tree's branches produce prop roots.

They saturate the soil as they descend into it.

The increased mechanical support given by these roots is beneficial to the banyan tree.

Stilt Roots in Maize: 

In maize plants, stilt roots develop from nodes just above the ground. These roots penetrate the earth and offer the maize plant with increased mechanical support.


2. The essential functions of roots are anchorage and absorption of water and minerals in the terrestrial plant. What functions are associated with the roots of aquatic plants. How are roots of aquatic plants and terrestrial plants different?

Ans: The primary function of roots is to provide anchoring and to absorb water and minerals. Aquatic vegetation, on the other hand, does not have a problem with water supply. As a result, most aquatic plants' roots are underdeveloped. In free-floating plants, roots are rare and in the form of fine hairs. Anchorage is provided by roots in submerged plants.


3. Draw diagrams of a typical monocot and dicot leaves to show their venation pattern.

Ans: 


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4. A typical angiosperm flower consists of four floral parts. Give the names of the floral parts and their arrangements sequentially

Ans: Starting at the periphery, the arrangement of four floral sections is as follows:

Calyx→Corolla→Androecium→Gynoecium

Green leaf-like sepals make up the calyx.

The petals of the corolla are brightly coloured.

Stamens make up the androecium (filament and anther).

The gynoecium is made up of carpel (stima, style, and ovary).


5. Given below are floral formulae of some plants. Draw floral diagrams from these formulae.


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(a)

 

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(b) 


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(c) 


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(d) 


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6. Reticulate venation is found in dicot leaves while in monocot leaves venation is of parallel type. Mention one exception to this generalization.

Ans: Exceptions to this rule include the following:

Monocot with reticulate venation: Alocasia, Smilax

Dicot with parallel venation: Calophyllum, Corymbium 


7. You have heard about several insectivorous plants that feed on insects.

Nepenthes or the pitcher plant is one such example, which usually grows in shallow water or in marsh lands. What part of the plant is modified into a ‘pitcher’? How does this modification help the plant for food even though it can photosynthesize like any other green plant?

Ans: The leaves of the pitcher plant are shaped like a pitcher. With the pitcher, you'll get a cover produced from the lamina's apex. The front part of the petiole resembles a tendon. It maintains the vertical position of the pitcher.

Nitrogen deficiency exists in marshlands' soil. These plants need nitrogenous materials to synthesise protein, despite photosynthesis. Insects are a good source of protein, therefore eating them gives the nitrogenous nutrients that these plants need.


8. Mango and coconut are ‘drupe’ type of fruits. In mango fleshy mesocarp is edible. What is the edible part of coconut? What does milk of tender coconut represent?

Ans: The endosperm is the component of the coconut that can be eaten. The liquid form of the oily endosperm is tender coconut milk.


9. How can you differentiate between free central and axile placentation?

Ans: 

Free Central

Axile Placentation

In the ovary, there is only one chamber.

The ovary has a lot of chambers.

The central axis is where the ovules are carried.


The axile column is formed by septa that extend from the central axis and come together. The axile column is where the ovules are connected.

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10. Tendrils are found in the following plants. Identify whether they are stem

tendrils or leaf tendrils.

a. Cucumber

Ans: Stem Tendril


b. Peas

Ans: Leaf Tendril


c. Pumpkins

Ans: Stem Tendril


d. Grapevine

Ans: Stem Tendril


e. Watermelons

Ans: Stem Tendril


11. Why is maize grain usually called a fruit and not a seed?

Ans: The seed coat of a maize grain is membranous and attached to the fruit wall. A maize grain is actually a ripened ovary with a ripened ovule. As a consequence, a maize grain is more often known as a fruit than a seed.


12. Tendrils of grapevines are homologous to the tendril of pumpkins but are analogous to that of pea. Justify the above statement.

Ans: Homologous organs comprise similar basic parts but execute diverse functions. Comparable organs are those that have distinct basic components yet perform the same function. Grapevine and pumpkin tendrils are homologous organs because they are modified stems. Pea tendrils, on the other hand, are modified leaves that resemble grapevine tendrils in appearance.


13. Rhizome of ginger is like the roots of other plants that grows underground. Despite this fact ginger is a stem and not a root. Justify.

Ans: The following characteristics of the ginger rhizome indicate that it is a stem rather than a root:

Scaly leaves are present.

Nodes and internodes are present.

The presence of adversive roots


14. Differentiate between

a. Bract and Bracteole

Ans: Bract is the leaf-like structure in the axil, while bracteole is carried on the flower stalk.


b. Pulvinus and petiole

Ans: The petiole is the leaf stalk, whereas the pulvinus is the inflated region of the leaf base.


c. Pedicel and peduncle

Ans: The flower stalk is known as the pedicel, whereas the stalk of the entire inflorescence is known as the peduncle.


d. Spike and spadix

Ans: Spikes and spadixes are both types of inflorescence. Sessile blooms form a spike on an extended peduncle. The peduncle is also not meaty. In spadix, one to a few massive bracts termed spathes encircle the whole flower. In spadix, the peduncle is meaty.


e. Stamen and staminoid

Ans: The stamen is the male reproductive organ in flowers whereas Staminoid is the name given to the sterile stamen.


f. Pollen and pollenium

Ans: Pollen is the male gamete found in flowers. Pollenium is a group of pollen grains from a single bloom. A sticky substance binds the pollen grains in a pollenium, and all of the pollen grains are transferred together.


Long Answer Type Questions

1. Distinguish between families Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Liliaceae on the basis of gynoecium characteristics (with figures). Also write economic importance of any one of the above family.

Ans: 


Gynoecium

Characteristics

Fabaceae

Solanaceae

Liliaceae

Carpels

Monocarpellary

Bicarpellary, Syncarpous

Tricarpellary,

syncarpous

Ovary

Superior and unilocular ovary

Superior and bilocular ovary

Superior ovary,

trilocular

Placentation

Marginal placentation

Axile placentation

Axile placentation


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Economic Importance of Solanaceae:

  • The Solanaceae family includes many important fruits and vegetables, including brinjal, tomato, and potato.

  • Chilli, a popular spice, is a member of this family.

  • This family includes therapeutic herbs including Belladona and Ashwagandha.

  • Petunia, an attractive plant, is a member of this family.


2. Describe various stem modifications associated with food storage, climbing and protection.

Ans: Modifications of Stem for food storage:

Rhizome: A rhizome is a modified subterranean stem. It has a horizontal growth pattern and stores food. There are nodes, internodes, and scaly leaves on it. There are buds present that produce aerial shoots. Ginger, turmeric, and banana are just a few examples.

Tuber: Tubers are underground branches that produce tubers. Tubers have nodes and internodes that can be viewed. Nodes appear as little depressions, which are referred to as eyes. These 'eyes' are responsible for vegetative propagation. Example: Consider  the potato.

Corn: A corn is a modified subterranean stem. It grows in a vertical direction.

There are nodes and internodes in it. Examples of the same may include Colocasia.

Bulb: The underground stem has the appearance of a bulb.

To store food, the internode is shortened to permit the leaves to become thick and meaty. Example:  Consider the onion.

Modifications of stem for climbing:

Tendril: The axillary bud of certain plants gets extended and coiled, forming tendrils. Tendril wraps itself around a support and therefore aids the plant's ascent.

Grapevine and pumpkin are two examples.

Modification of Stem for Protection:

Thorn: A modified thorn can be found in the leaf axil or at the stem's apex. Due to the thorns, grazing animals cannot injure the plant. Duranta and Calamus are two examples.


3. Stolon, offset and rhizome are different forms of stem modifications. How can these modified forms of stem be distinguished from each other?

Ans: 


Stolon

Offset

Rhizome

The upward growth of the stem is followed by the downward growth of the stem.

Daughter plants emerge from offsets and split off to form new individuals.

Stem can extend underground and in any direction.

Vegetative propagation is the goal of the modification.

Vegetative propagation is the goal of the modification.

The goal of the modification is to improve food storage.

Example- mentha

Example- Pistia

Example-turmeric, ginger.


4. The mode of arrangements of sepals or petals in a floral bud is known as aestivation. Draw the various types of aestivation possible for a typical pentamerous flower.

Ans: 


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5. The arrangements of ovules within the ovary is known as placentation. What does the term placenta refer to? Name and draw various types of placentations in the flower as seen in T.S. or V.S.

Ans: The placenta is a cushion-like flattened tissue to which one or even more ovules are attached. It nourishes the developing embryo.


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6. Sunflower is not a flower. Explain

Ans: Sunflowers are a group of flowers, not a single flower. In actuality, what looks to be a single flower is actually an inflorescence, which is a group or bunch of very small blooms. These flowers are arranged in a unique way on a receptacle. Capitulum is the name for this form of inflorescence. The following are the main characteristics of capitulum.

  • The receptacle has been flattened.

  • On the receptacle, there are several tiny, sessile florets.

  • The florets that are the newest are in the centre, whereas those that are the oldest are in the periphery.

  • Sunflower florets are divided into two types: ray florets and disc florets.

  • The receptacle's rim is covered in ray florets. These have a yellow colour to them.

  • The disc florets are located in the centre. They are actinomorphic and bisexual

Sunflower is an inflorescence, not a flower, as evidenced by the characteristics listed above.


7. How do you distinguish between hypogeal germination and epigeal germination? What is the role of cotyledon (s) and the endosperm in the germination of seeds?

Ans: 

Hypogeal Germination

Epigeal Germination

Epicotyl elongation and rapid growth.

Elongation of the hypocotyl and rapid development.

Cotyledons are plants that live in the soil.

Cotyledons are plants that grow above the ground.

Cotyledons tend to be non-green and non-photosynthetic.

Cotyledons turn green and start photosynthesizing.

Examples: Bean, Castor.

Examples: Rice, Maize.


The Role of Cotyledons and Endosperm: 

Cotyledons and endosperm serve as a food storage system. During germination, the food in them becomes accessible to the embryo. The seedling starts photosynthesis when the first set of leaves emerges. Endosperm and cotyledons provide food until then.


8. Seeds of some plants germinate immediately after shedding from the plants while in other plants they require a period of rest before germination. The later phenomena is called as dormancy. Give the reasons for seed dormancy and some methods to break it.

Ans: Reasons for seed dormancy:

  • Seed coats are tough.

  • Water cannot be absorbed through impermeable layers.

  • ABA slows germination and restricts development.

  • Certain seeds have an underdeveloped embryo, which causes germination to be delayed.

Methods to break seed dormancy:

  • Temperature as well as other environmental factors can cause physical dormancy to be disrupted. When a seed goes through the intestines of an animal, it loses its physical dormancy.

  • External factors assist in breaking mechanical dormancy. An animal, for instance, could fracture the hard seed covering.

  • Enzymatic activities break chemical dormancy.


Advantages of the NCERT Exemplar Chapter 5 Solutions

The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), an autonomous body, designs textbooks and study material for students. The NCERT provides value-based questions in the Exemplars. It helps students gain a better understanding of the chapters. Teachers also get more questions to get solved by the students. Students need to solve the Exemplar to enhance their flexibility to deal with any unexpected question. Vedantu provides free solutions to the chapter 5 Exemplar problems and other chapters. You can download it without paying any money. Just sign up with your mail-id.


Download NCERT Exemplar of Class 11 Chapter 5

Students can download the unsolved NCERT Exemplar for Class 11 chapter 5 Morphology of Flowering Plants from the official site of the National Centre of Education and Research Training (NCERT). To download the solutions of the Exemplar, click on the link on this page. Vedantu offers solutions in a simple way and detailed manner. 

FAQs on NCERT Exemplar for Class 11 Biology Chapter-5 (Book Solutions)

1. Do NCERT biology Exemplar questions help in NEET?

Yes, it does help. Students find these questions help them understand topics easily. But it is not sufficient for NEET preparation. You need to go through other papers to assess your knowledge. NEET is the National Eligibility Entrance Test conducted by the National Testing Agency. Those who pass this exam get a chance to study in government-sponsored medical colleges. Biology is the deciding section of the NEET paper, students suggest preparing from the NCERT’s textbook, and Exemplar helps them gain qualified marks.

2. Why is studying from the NCERT Exemplar necessary?

NCERT textbooks and Exemplars by the CBSE board by themselves. Exemplars consist of new and researched questions created by the best teachers of India. Most of the time, an examiner asks questions from the NCERT Exemplar, and even in the competitive exam, it helps. Vedantu provides solutions to Exemplar problems for free. All you need to do is sign in to download the PDF provided above. These Exemplars are the best when it comes to strengthening your fundamentals and gaining accuracy.

3. How to score good marks in Class 11 Biology?

To score good marks, all you need to do is study hard. The second thing you as a student can do is register at our online biology tuition classes. Vedantu provides the best biology faculties with whom you can interact one to one to clear your doubts. The third and most important thing to do is solve previous year papers and NCERT Exemplar questions. Our experts have crafted solutions to these questions to ease your preparation.

4. What is the use of Class 11 Chapter 5 Morphology of flowering plants?

Chapter 5 Morphology of flowering plants teaches you about the structure of flowers and the function of the different parts like stem, roots, leaf, etc. Each chapter has importance when we talk about class 11. Class 11 and 12 together make your career. What we learn during these two years becomes a medium of scoring a high percentage of marks. Morphology plays an important part when we prepare for competitive exams. This chapter cannot leave our sight after finishing class 11. It makes a base to understand botany in the higher class.

5. How to study the morphology of flowering plants?

The NCERT textbook is a perfect medium to learn the Morphology of flowering plants. Solve Exemplar questions to gain a better picture, but keep in mind to trust the resources you are using. Students change the sources or read from different materials at the same time. All those things create confusion later. Create your notes after class. Chapter 5 of Class 11 has terms that are hard to remember. You need to retain them for the long run. Follow Vedantu, register for the online tuition class of biology and learn from the biology experts.