The region consisting of long and severe winters and growing season consisting of a few months of summers constitutes ______________. (a) Savannah ecosystem (b) Taiga ecosystem (c) Tundra ecosystem (d) None of the above
Hint: Arctic regions have an ecosystem characterised by long winters and short summers.
Complete answer:Savannah ecosystem is characterized by long grasses and small, dispersed trees. These trees do not form much canopy and this allows sunlight to reach the ground surface. These are some tropical grassland and these areas have warm temperatures round the year and have characteristic highest seasonal rainfall. Such an ecosystem is seen in African Savannah forests.
The Taiga ecosystem is generally located in the subarctic regions and is cold enough. These areas lie between the arctic tundra regions and temperate forests of the south. Taiga ecosystems are characterised by thick forests covered with coniferous trees. These trees bear needle-like leaves instead of broad, soft leaves. The seeds grow inside protective and woody cones (e.g. pine cones). Flowers, moss, lichen, fungi grow in these regions. The trees have shallow roots and can survive with little water.
The Tundra ecosystem is found mainly in the Arctic and Antarctic region and also in the high, ice-covered mountains. These areas have long and severe winters with heavy snowfall. Besides the winter seasons, in summers also temperatures remain pretty low. Summers are short and hence the growing season is very less. The soil is frozen (permafrost). This situation hinders growth of vegetation. If existing vegetation or trees get damaged, it takes years to recover.
So, the correct answer is the ‘Tundra ecosystem’.
Note:Both the Tundra and Taiga ecosystem have long winters and short summers. But the severity of winter is more in Tundra biome and summers are also shorter.
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