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Last updated date: 29th Nov 2023
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MVSAT Dec 2023

What structure stores DNA and genetic material for the cell?

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- Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule made up of two polynucleotide chains that coil around each other to form a double helix and hold genetic instructions for all known organisms and viruses' development, function, growth, and reproduction.
- Nucleic acids include DNA and ribonucleic acid.
- The backbone of each strand is made up of sugar (deoxyribose) and phosphate groups that alternate.

Complete answer:
The DNA is the most stable carrier of the genetic material which is present in the organism. It comprises two polynucleotide chains that are coiled around each other to form a double helix. The DNA is located in the nucleus inside the chromatin network which is a mesh-like structure. In Eukaryotes, some amount of DNA is also found in mitochondria as well as chloroplast. This DNA is circular and similar to that of prokaryotic DNA.

In the case of prokaryotes, the nucleus is absent. The single-stranded circular DNA is present inside a nucleus like structure called the nucleoid which is suspended in the cytoplasm.

The nucleus serves a variety of functions. The following are the details:
- The nucleus assists in the security of the genes.
- It regulates gene expression and thereby governs the cell's functions.
- It also stores DNA strands and proteins and regulates the organism's genetic characteristics.
- RNA transcription takes place in the nucleus.
- It regulates gene expression and aids in DNA replication

Note: In a eukaryotic cell, the nucleus is the most visible organelle. It comprises the chromosomes of the cell and is the site of nearly all DNA replication and RNA synthesis. The nucleus is spheroid in form, with a membrane called the nuclear envelope separating it from the cytoplasm.