Questions & Answers

Name the structure that plays an important role in synthesis of protein.

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Hint: As we know, mainly two organelles are involved in protein synthesis- ribosome and endoplasmic reticulum.

Complete answer:.
In this question we have asked about the structure that is involved in protein synthesis and we have also given a diagram, in which we can see that there are two subunits one is large subunit and second is smaller subunit. As we know, there are two organelles that are involved in protein synthesis - ribosomes and Golgi apparatus and we know the structure of Golgi apparatus and ribosomes both. Golgi apparatus is made up of stacks of flattened structure that contain numerous vesicles containing secretory granules while ribosome consists of two major components, the small and large ribosomal subunit. So, the given diagram is of ribosome and the answer is ribosome. Ribosome is the main structure that plays an important role in synthesis of protein.
Protein synthesis is the process in which cells make proteins. It occurs in two stages: transcription and translation. Transcription is the transfer of genetic information in DNA to mRNA in the nucleus. It includes three steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. In the nucleolus, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is synthesized and assembled with proteins from the cytoplasm to form subunits. The subunits pass out through the nuclear pores to the cytoplasm where they combine to form ribosomes. Cells that synthesize large quantities of proteins (e.g., pancreas) have large numbers of ribosomes. As we can see in the diagram it is made up of 2 subunits:
Large subunit
Small subunit
There are two types of Ribosomes:-
1) Free ribosomes- they are suspended in the cytosol and synthesize proteins that function within the cytosol.
2) Bound ribosomes- they are attached to the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum.

Note: We can solve this question by only looking at the diagram as the given diagram is of ribosome.
A ribosome is made from complexes of RNAs and proteins and is, therefore, a ribonucleoprotein.
Each ribosome is divided into two subunits:
The pink one is a smaller subunit which binds to a larger subunit and the mRNA pattern, and
The purple one is a larger subunit which binds to the tRNA, the amino acids, and the smaller subunit.