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Name the following:
(a) A chordate animal having flame cells as excretory structures.
(b) Cortical portions projecting between the medullary pyramids in the human kidney.
(c) A loop of capillary running parallel to the Henle’s loop.

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Last updated date: 13th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: Excretory system helps in the removal of the metabolic waste from the body in the form of urine. Nephrons are the unit of the kidney and the kidney is made up of the millions of the nephrons. The reabsorption and the purification take place in the kidney.

Complete Answer:
(a) A chordate with a flame cell:
The flame cells are used as the excretory system and the regulation of the osmosis in the body of the chordate. Such animals having flame cells as the excretory system are flatworms, amphibious etc.

(b) Cortical portions in the human kidney:
The column of Bertini projects are the cortical portions. They are located between the medullary pyramids of the human kidney. These denote the tissues made up of cortical tissue within the medullary structures.

(c) A capillary loop in the human kidney:
Vasa recta is the capillary loop that goes parallel to the Henle’s loop. This loop along with the Henle’s loop regulates the concentration gradient within the medullary interstitium of the human kidney.

Note: The main role of the vasa recta in the excretion process is the reabsorption of the water from the kidney and this water constitutes the urine. This water reabsorption in the vasa recta loops takes place by the process of the maintenance of the osmotic gradient between the blood and the urine duct.