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Name any four colonial powers of the 19th century.

Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
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> Colonialism is basically a policy where one country tries to expand political or economic control over the people and physical region of another country.
> They include some of the Allied Powers and one of the Axis powers.
> Majority of the colonial powers belonged to Europe.

Complete answer:
In the 19th century, energized by the industrial revolution and under pressure from a rapidly growing population, Europe launched a new period of colonial expansion, inspired by the discovery of new markets, new areas for settlements of Europe's poor migrants.

The 4 major colonial powers in the 19th century were namely -
BRITAIN: The importance of protecting its ocean trading routes and in particular the sea routes, explains the pragmatic approach behind British expansionism. In India, the British East Indies company controlled and aided the construction of a vast Asian empire. During the 19th century, the area under Britishers direct or indirect control had spread out from the original colonial settlements in Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, as the company engaged in one-sided alliances with Indian rulers. Though after the 'Indian Mutiny of 1857', the company's government was replaced by the direct rule of Britain and Queen Victoria assumed the title of Empress of India in 1876.

U.S.A.: During the 19th century, American imperialism was the annexation of Hawaii in 1898 which allowed the United States to gain possession and control of all ports, buildings, public properties and many more that had formerly belonged to the government of the Hawaiian islands. There also happened the great Spanish - American war which was a three-month-long conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States. The defeat of Spain marked the end of the Spanish empire. The result of the war was the 1898 treaty of Paris that allowed temporary American control of Cuba and indefinite colonial authority over Puerto Rico, Guam and Philippines.

FRANCE: During the 19th and 20th centuries the French colonial empires were the second-largest colonial empire in the world only behind the British empire. Napoleon Bonaparte took control of France and in the early 19th century, embarked on conquest that resembled those of Alexander The Great. After his defeat at the famous battle of Waterloo in 1815, The French monarchy experienced a succession of unpopular kings. The French also colonised North America to create trading posts for the trade.

GERMANY: In the 19th century Otto Von Bismarck, who disliked colonialism but had reluctantly built an overseas empire when it was demanded by both elite and mass opinion. Germany colonies consisted of territories that make up 22 countries today, mostly in Africa, including Nigeria, Ghana and Uganda. Though Germany lost control of its colonial empire at the beginning of world war I.

> Historians recognised 3 motives for European exploration and colonisation in the new world that were - god, gold, glory.
> The opportunity to make money was one of the primary motives for the colonisation of the new world.
> Portugal's were the first ones to have started colonialism.