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What is meant by Swadeshi? Why did Gandhiji lay emphasis on swadeshi?

Last updated date: 17th Jun 2024
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Hint: The partition of Bengal agitated people all over India which led all the sections of Congress, leaders and radicals to oppose the action of the company. This gave rise to the Swadeshi Movement marked what's the step of self Reliance.

Complete answer:Viceroy Curzon in 1905 partitioned Bengal. During the time Bengal was the biggest province of British India which included parts of Orissa and Bihar. British excused the division of Bengal for administrative convenience but it was ultimately partitioned to meet the interests of businessmen and British officials. This way they wanted to curtail the influence of Bengali politicians and split the Bengali people into two provinces. This outraged people and large meetings and demonstrations took place and a novel method to protest developed which came to be known as the famous Swadeshi movement. However, the movement was widespread and strongest in Bengal but it was heard elsewhere in India too and gave rise to other movements such as the Vandemataram movement in deltaic Andhra. The movement opposed British rule and encouraged the ideas of self-help and self Reliance by encouraging Swadeshi enterprise, use of Indian languages and national education. People under this movement advocated mass mobilization and boycotted British institutions and goods. Some people suggested revolutionary violence to overthrow British rule.

Note: Newspapers were edited in the Marathi language by Tilak who was the strongest critic of British rule. A group of muslims nawabs and landlords formed, All India Muslim League at Dacca in 1906. They supported the partition of Bengal and wished for separate Muslim electorates.