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Male and female flowers are present on different plants (dioecious) to ensure Xenogamy, in ………..
(b)Bottle gourd
(d)All of the above

Last updated date: 16th Jun 2024
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Hint: The transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of a different plant which is a type of cross-pollination is xenogamy. It brings genetically different types of pollen grains during pollination to the stigma.

Complete answer:
Male and female flowers are present on different plants (dioecious) to ensure Xenogamy in papaya. In Xenogamy, the anther and filaments constitute stamen which is the male part of the flower. During the cross-fertilization, the ovum from one individual is fused with the spermatozoa of the other. It involves cross-fertilization between unrelated individuals that lead to the masking of deleterious recessive alleles in the given progeny. The cross-pollination involves certain characteristics that facilitate the pollination that includes herkogamy which is to avoid self-pollination by bearing a mechanical barrier on the stigmatic surface. The maturation of the Pollen on the stigma of the flower at different times which is to avoid self-pollination. In certain flowers, the mature Pollen falls on the receptive stigma which fails to bring self-pollination on the same flower. Male sterility is another characteristic that facilitates cross-pollination as the pollen grains are not functional.

Additional information:
Bottle gourd: It is consumed as a vegetable and is harvested material to be dried and used as a utensil. It constitutes white flesh and light green smooth skin. It can be varied in shape from a huge rounded and small bottle shape. It is dried and is used to smoke pipe tobacco.
Maize: Maize is commonly known as corn which is a cereal grain domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico. It has a leaf stalk in the plant which produces pollen inflorescence and separates the ovuliferous inflorescences which are known as ears. It is a staple food in many parts of the world that surpasses the total production of wheat. In maize, the flowers are unisexual but on the same plant. Maize is a monoecious plant. This means it has both male flowers which are staminate and female flowers called pistillate in it. The flowers are unisexual and are imperfect. They grow separately on the same plant.
So, the correct answer is option (A) 'Papaya'.

Note: Botanically, Papaya is considered as a very and it looked like it grows from a tree but is actually a fruit of an herb. It can grow up to 10 feet tall and is good for eye health. Bottle gourd helps in weight loss and relieving stress.