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What were the major problems that India faced post-independence?

Last updated date: 25th Jun 2024
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Hint: India gained independence in 1947 and came to rule itself with no foreign interference. India now worked along the lines of its constitution, forming a representative government through public elections. This demanded that it integrates all its diversities and works on the path of development.

Complete answer:
> India faced primarily three kinds of challenges in the post-independence phase as the social, political and economic challenges. Social ones can be seen as communalism, especially after partition when mass mobilization occurred and others included rampant casteism and untouchability. Such diversity further included tribal groups and other alienated communities and bringing them all was another challenge, especially when their regional loyalties override the national one.
> This directly links to political challenges as the unequal public participation of different communities, so a need to strengthen democracy and practice the universal adult franchise. Along with this, the nation needed to be integrated bringing different states under a centralized federal government. Another issue faced was of linguistic differences and opposition to Hindi as an official language from southern states resulting in carving out of new states linguistically from the 1960s.
> India also needed to take part in international politics and was facing constant pressure from its neighbouring countries regarding various territorial issues.
> Poverty and unemployment remained an important economic challenge which needed a complete push to the economic development of the nation through supporting both the public and private sector. Land reforms were another major problem for over 70% of the population engaged in agrarian activities. Other challenges can be seen in the terms of education and huge illiteracy rate, along with the need for the development of the health sector providing quality medical treatment to poor sections.

Note: Science and technological development came to be seen as an important tool for economic development in independent India, with constant encouragement from Jawaharlal Nehru. He, therefore, established the first National laboratory and other technological institutions. Similar endeavours were made in the field of nuclear energy and space research.