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………. Is caused by deficiency of vitamin D.

Last updated date: 21st Jun 2024
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Hint:When the functioning of one or more organs or systems of the body is adversely affected, characterised by various signs and symptoms, we say, that we are not healthy, i.e., we have a disease. Disease can be broadly classified into two categories: (A) Congenital Disease (B) Acquired diseases.

Complete answer:
A wide range of organisms could cause diseases in man. Such disease causing organisms are called pathogens e.g., bacteria, viruses, fungi., protozoans, helminths etc.
Most parasites are therefore pathogens as they cause harm to the host body by living in or on them. The pathogens can enter our body by various means, multiply and interfere with normal vital activities, resulting in morphological and functional damage. Pathogens have to adapt to life within the environment of the host. For example, the pathogens that enter the gut must know a way of surviving in the stomach at low pH and resisting the various digestive enzymes.

Now let us collect information about given options
A) Dengue fever : Dengue fever is caused by a RNA containing Arbovirus (Arthropod borne virus) of flavivirus group which also causes yellow fever (not found in India). Thus, the virus which causes dengue fever is a mosquito borne.
B) Yellow fever : It is kind of acute haemorrhagic fever. It usually is spread by mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are only the primary vector that only cause disease once and do not act as a spreader further.
C) Meningitis : it is defined as inflammation of leptomeninges. It is a disease of the central nervous system that is caused by a viral vector. Most blood sucking arthropods that are usually mosquitoes act as vectors to transmit this.
D) Typhoid : Typhoid is also known as Enteric fever. It is caused by Pathogen Salmonella typhi (A Gram-negative bacterium). These pathogens generally enter the small intestine through contaminated food & water and migrate to other organs through blood. The housefly can spread this infection through food.

Hence the correct answer is option ‘D’ typhoid.

Note:Symptoms of typhoid include Sustained high fever (39° to 40°C), weakness, stomach pain, constipation, headache, and loss of appetite Typhoid fever could be confirmed by Widal test. A classic case in medicine, that of Mary Malon nicknamed Typhoid Mary. She was a cook by profession and was a typhoid carrier who continued to spread typhoid for several years through the food she prepared.