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Formula of rate of percolation is
A. \[Percolation{\text{ }}rate\left( {ml/min} \right){\text{ }} = \dfrac{{\;amount\;of\;water\;\left( {mL} \right)}}{{percolation\;time\;\left( {min} \right)}}\]
B. \[Percolation{\text{ }}rate\left( {ml/min} \right){\text{ }} = \dfrac{{percolation\;time\;\left( {min} \right)}}{{amount\;of\;water\;(mL)}}\]
C. Both A and B
D. None of these

Last updated date: 17th Jun 2024
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Hint: The property of soil to allow the water to filter though it is called percolation. The percolation rate can be calculated by the amount of water should be divided by total time taken to percolation.

Complete answer:
The phenomenon of absorption of water by soil is considered as percolation. The rate of absorption is different for different types of soils. The percolation rate of a soil depends on its composition. A soil having more percolation rate can hold water for a longer duration. Percolation rate helps in selection of suitable soil for the growth of a particular crop.

Percolation rate can be calculated by using the below formula:

\[Percolation{\text{ }}rate\left( {ml/min} \right){\text{ }} = \dfrac{{\;amount\;of\;water\;\left( {mL} \right)}}{{percolation\;time\;\left( {min} \right)}}\]

Example: Take \[1\;kg\] of soil in a pot or bucket. Put \[400\;ml\] of water in it, if it takes \[10\] minutes to absorb or percolate. We can calculate the rate of percolation by using the formula

\[Percolation{\text{ }}rate\left( {ml/min} \right){\text{ }} = \;\dfrac{{400\;(mL)}}{{\;10\;\left( {min} \right)}}\]

Thus, the rate of percolation of the given soil is: \[40ml/min\]

Hence, The correct answer is option (A).

Additional information:
Deep percolation or Groundwater recharge is a natural hydrological process, where surface water moves downward to groundwater. Percolation in soils primarily occurs due to gravity pulling the water vertically downward. Ground water recharge occurs both naturally (through the water cycle) and through anthropogenic (man-made) processes (through constructing percolation tanks), where rainwater water is directed to the subsurface. A percolation tank, in its most low-tech form, is nothing but a simple pit dug into the ground. It facilitates groundwater recharge through infiltration of surface runoff into the layers of the soil.

Note: Percolation rate means the rate by which water passes down slowly into the soil. But water does not percolate at the same rate in all types of soils. Sandy soil allows maximum percolation of water and clay soil allows minimum percolation of water.