Hint:Since the beginning of civilization, humans have been competing for a place to live, which acted as the main aspect of survival. This struggle created the concept of shelter which made humans to start creating civilizations and eventually, nations. Population distribution is one of the major factors in the development of the human race. ‘Where should a person live?’ Is the question to which answers lay within multiple factors.
population distribution is often related to factors including the climate, nature or the geography, topography, type of soil, energy resources which are available. These will fall in the category of natural factors or elements. On top of this, factors like political scenario, government, job requirements and forced migration can also be the reasons for differences in population distribution.
The factors can be divided into two types:
Physical factors affecting population distribution include altitude of the place, climatic scenario in the area, types of soils and vegetation to go with it, availability of water and minerals and access to energy resources. High altitude will affect human existence in terms of reduced atmospheric pressure and low oxygen content. Therefore, very few permanent settlements can be seen in the lofty mountains of the world at a height above 5,000 metres .Almost 56 percent of the world’s population lives within 200 metres from the sea level, and over 80 per cent within 500 metres which indicates the suitable climatic changes in order to survive on longer term .Adverse physical conditions and lack of any of these means can affect the of livelihood and force the migrate from the place.
2- Socio-economic and political factors
Population distribution as well as the density in a region is in perfect harmony with the economic situation of the place. As geographic conditions alter, it provides different opportunities for people on different levels of the economic spectrum. Technological and economic advancement can also bring about significant changes in population distribution of an area. Political statements and alliance with a specific political party can also act as means of variety in population distribution.
Hence, the correct answer is option (B).
Note:When describing the dynamics of population distribution, historical processes should also be taken into account. Human settlement period is a significant determinant of the magnitude of population concentration in any area. Much of the world's heavily populated areas have a very long history of human habitation, although the sparse population of some areas can partially be explained in terms of their recent habitation.