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# How many calcium atoms are required to bond with sulfur to make calcium sulfide?

Last updated date: 21st Feb 2024
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Hint: A Calcium atom has two valence electrons. It can accomplish a noble gas configuration by losing these two electrons.
A sulphur atom has six valence electrons. It can accomplish a noble gas configuration by gaining two electrons.

Calcium sulfide is a molecule using the chemical formula $CaS$. This one is bonded ionically. The calcium owns a $+ 2\;$charge, whereas the sulfur anion owns a $- 2$ charge, and thus one calcium cation neutralizes one sulfur anion.
‘n’ terms of this one atomic structure, $CaS$ crystallizes in the similar idea as sodium chloride indicating that the bonding in this material is decidedly ionic. The high melting point is also dependable with its explanation as an ionic solid. In the crystal, each ${S^{2 - }}\;$ ion is bounded by an octahedron of six $C{a^{2 + }}\;$ ions, and complementarity, each $C{a^{2 + }}\;$ ion encircled by six ${S^{2 - }}\;$ ions.
Additional information - $CaS$ is molded by "carbothermic reduction" of calcium sulfate , which involves the transformation of carbon, generally as per charcoal, to carbon dioxide :
$CaS{O_4}\; + {\text{ }}2{\text{ }}C{\text{ }} \to {\text{ }}CaS{\text{ }} + {\text{ }}2{\text{ }}C{O_2}$
$3{\text{ }}CaS{O_4}\; + {\text{ }}CaS{\text{ }} \to {\text{ }}4{\text{ }}CaO{\text{ }} + {\text{ }}4{\text{ }}S{O_2}$
In the ${2^{nd}}$ reaction the sulfate ($+ 6\;$oxidation state) oxidizes the sulfide ($- 2$ oxidation state) to Sulfur dioxide ($+ 4$ oxidation state), whereas it remains being reduced to sulfur dioxide itself ($+ 4$oxidation state).
Note: In the ionic bond creation concerning calcium and sulphur, a calcium gives two valence electrons to a sulphur atom to form a $C{a^{2 + }}\;$ ion and an ${S^{2 - }}\;$ ion.
Like several salts containing sulfide ions, CaS naturally has an odour of ${H_2}S$, which results from a small amount of this gas molded by hydrolysis of the salt.