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Liquid - State of Matter

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State of Matter

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A state of matter is one of the many different forms that matter can take. In daily life, four states of matter are visible: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. There are three states of matter. The properties of solid, liquid, and gas are mentioned below. The 3 states of matter examples are wood, gold, water, Nitrogen, Oxygen. Solid, Liquid gas are three characters by which life is surrounded.

Different States of Matter

Solid 

Constituent particles (ions, electrons, or molecules) are tightly packed together in a solid. The forces between particles are so strong that they can only vibrate rather than travel freely. As a consequence, a solid has a definite volume and a stable, definite form. Solids may only change their shape when subjected to an external force, such as being broken or sliced.

Melting solids into liquids and freezing liquids into solids are also possible transformations. Sublimation is a process that allows solids to convert directly into gases, and deposition is a process that allows gases to transform directly into solids.

Properties of Solids:

Solids are defined by their structural rigidity and resistance to shape or volume changes. 

A solid material, unlike a liquid, does not flow into the form of its container, nor does it expand to fill the entire volume available to it, as gas does. The atoms in a solid are closely bound to each other, either in a normal geometric lattice (crystalline solids, such as metals and ordinary water ice).

Liquid

A liquid is a virtually incompressible fluid that conforms to its container's shape while maintaining a (nearly) constant volume regardless of pressure. If the temperature and pressure remain constant, the volume is fixed. When a solid is heated past its melting point and the pressure is greater than the substance's triple point, it becomes liquid. While intermolecular (or interatomic or interionic) forces still exist, the molecules have enough energy to travel about and the structure is mobile. This implies that the form of a liquid is determined by its container rather than the liquid itself. The volume is typically greater than that of the equivalent solid, with water (H2O) being the most well-known exception. The critical temperature of a liquid is the maximum temperature at which it can live. The liquid state of matter is a transition between solid and gaseous states. There are 3 states of water that are ice(solid), liquid as water, gas as vapor.

Properties of Liquid:

Liquids are almost impervious to compression. Molecules in liquids are very similar to one another.

Liquids have a constant volume but no constant form.

Liquids flow from one stage to the next.

In normal circumstances, liquids have boiling points that are higher than room temperature.

Gas 

Gas is a substance that can be compressed. Gas will not only adhere to the shape of the container it is in, but it will also expand to fill it.

The molecules in a gas have enough kinetic energy that intermolecular forces have a small effect (or none at all in an ideal gas), and the average distance between adjacent molecules is much larger than the molecular dimension. A gas has no distinct form or length, but it takes up the entire volume of the container in which it is stored. A liquid may be converted to a gas by heating it to boiling point at constant pressure, or by lowering the pressure at a constant temperature.

A vapour is a gas that can be liquefied by compression alone without cooling at temperatures below its critical temperature. When vapour and a liquid (or solid) are in equilibrium, the gas pressure equals the vapour pressure of the liquid (or solid).

Properties of Gas:

They're easy to compact, extend to fill their tanks, and take up a lot more room than the liquids or solids from which they're made.

Plasma 

Plasma is the 4th state of matter. Plasma, like a gas, has no specified form or volume. Plasmas, unlike gases, are electrically conductive, generate magnetic fields and electric currents, and are sensitive to electromagnetic forces. Positively charged nuclei float in a "sea" of freely travelling disassociated electrons, similar to how such changes occur in conductive metal, where the electron "sea" allows plasma to conduct electricity.

Gas is typically converted to plasma in one of two ways: either by exposing it to extremely high temperatures or by creating a significant voltage gap between two points. As the matter is heated to high temperatures, electrons exit the atoms and are released, resulting in the presence of free electrons. This results in a partly ionized plasma. The plasma state is frequently misunderstood, and although it does not occur openly on Earth, it is frequently created by lightning, electric sparks, fluorescent lights, neon lights, and plasma televisions. The corona of the Sun, certain forms of flame, and stars are all examples of plasma-state illuminated matter.

Change of State of Matter 

It is referred to as the change of state of matter. In which one state can be converted to another and so on. The examples are mentioned below:

Condensation: 

It is the process of converting a gaseous state to a liquid state.

Evaporation:  

It is the process of converting a  liquid state to a gaseous state.

Solidification: 

It is the process of converting liquid state to solid-state.

Sublimation: 

It is the process of converting solid-state directly to a gaseous state without going to the liquid state.


FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. Which are the Four States of Matter?

Ans. Plasma is referred to as the fourth state of matter. Heating a neutral gas or exposing it to a powerful electromagnetic field may be used to create plasma. Plasma is electrically conductive due to the presence of free charged particles, with individual particle dynamics and macroscopic plasma motion governed by collective electromagnetic fields and highly sensitive to externally applied fields. Many modern technological devices, such as plasma televisions and plasma etching, rely on plasma's response to electromagnetic fields.

Q2. Is There Any State of Matter except Solid, Liquid, Gas and Plasma?

Ans. Yes, there are more states of matter except for solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. The 5 state of matter is man-made which is referred to as Bose-Einstein Condensates. The 7 states of matter are referred to as Solid, liquid, gas, Plasma, Quark-Gluon Plasma, Bose-Einstein Condensate, and Fermionic Condensate