Floral Formula of Solanaceae


What is the Floral Formula of Solanaceae?

Let us first learn the definition of floral formula and its importance, before we write down the floral formula of the Solanaceae family. Here, we will also discuss the features, importance, and position of the Solanaceae family. The representation of the structure of a flower using numbers, letters, and symbols is called its floral formula. The floral formula represents the floral symmetry, ovary position, number of parts, insertion, connotation, and adnation of a flower.


Floral Formula of Solanaceae Family

Solanaceae or nightshades belong to the family of flowering plants. Solanaceae is also called the potato family. It consists of 98 genera and 2500 species. The plants can take the form of vians, lianas, herbs, shrubs, trees, and sometimes epiphytes. It includes crops, medicinal plants, ornamentals, spices, and weeds. Examples: Pepper, potato, tomato, eggplant and so on.


To write the floral formula of Solanaceae the following are the symbols used.


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The Solanaceae family floral formula is 


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Floral Diagram of Solanaceae

The floral diagram of the Solanaceae family is as follows.


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Scientific Classification:

  • Kingdom: Plantae

  • Subkingdom: Tracheobionta

  • Super Division: Spermatophyta

  • Division: Magnoliophyta

  • Class: Magnoliopsida

  • Subclass: Asteridae

  • Order: Solanales

  • Family: Solanaceae


Features of Solanaceae Family

  • The flowers are actinomorphic, bracteate, and generally hermaphrodites.

  • The members of the family exhibit entomophilous pollination.

  • Terminal, cymose or axillary form of an inflorescence is found.

  • They possess a tap root system with branching.

  • The leaves are alternate and they have reticulate venation.

  • It has differentiated perianth with a corolla and calyx with five petals and five sepals respectively.

  • It has a gynoecium formed from two carpels with a superior ovary and an androecium with five stamens.

  • Epipetalous kinds of stamens are present.

  • The ovules are generally inverted.

  • The number of locules present in the ovary is the same as that of the carpels.

  • The fruits produced are berries or capsules.

The above discussion on the floral formula of the Solanaceae family and its features are important as well as interesting to learn. There is economic importance to the Solanaceae family. A variety of plant species are grown as ornamental plants. It has important food species such as potatoes, tomatoes, pepper, and eggplant. It contains alkaloids - these are nitrogenous substances. It can be toxic for animals even at low doses. Some of the main types of alkaloids include solanine, tropanes, nicotine, and capsaicin.

Key Properties of Solanaceae

Solanaceae can be recognized easily with the help of its general key information. Some of the key features of Solanaceae are stated below:

Common name: Solanaceae is commonly known from the  Potato family or Nightshade family.

Propagation type: The propagation of Solanaceae is either in the form of seed or in the form of fruit (dehisced or intact).

Number of Groups: This family includes around 90 groups and about 3000 species in range.

Distribution: The large family of Solanaceae consists of 90 groups that are present in the tropical and temperate regions of the world. Majorly they are found in Central and South America. In India, this family is represented in 15 groups and 88 species. Most of these species are cultivated all over India and some of them are also found in the Himalayas, Southern and Eastern India.


Method of using Floral Formula

The floral formula seems a bit of a complex topic to learn and memorize but if the mechanism is understood well it is easy to remember how the floral formula works. Below are a few key points that are explained in easy to understand language.

  • To begin, the presence or absence of bract and bracteoles in flowers of various families is noticed and recorded using specific letters.

  • The flower's symmetry is then expressed using the position of the floral whorls in relation to the mother axis. Flowers can be organized in a variety of ways, including poly symmetric (actinomorphic), dissymmetric, monosymmetric (zygomorphic), asymmetric, and spirally. As a result, particular symbols in the floral formula are used to identify flowers with differing symmetry.

  • The flower's sex is then written, indicating whether the plant is hermaphrodite (bisexual) or unisexual. Unisexual flowers have either stamens or carpels, whereas bisexual blooms have both male and female reproductive organs.

  • The number of floral members is then written, commencing with the calyx, corolla, androecium, and ending with the gynoecium. Each member is identified by a letter, such as 'K' for calyx, 'C' for corolla, 'A' for androecium, and 'G' for gynoecium. The number of each whorl is put after the letters K, C, A, and G, in that order.

  • If the whorl is unified, the number used following the letter is enclosed in brackets (). The bracket, on the other hand, is not applied if the floral members remain free. Drawing a curve from the top of the letters represents adnation between the floral whorls.

  • Drawing a horizontal line above, below, or in front of the letter 'G,' which indicates the inferior, superior, or half inferior position of the ovary, represents the ovary's position.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What Do Symbols in the Floral Formula Indicate?

The floral formula consists of five symbols and it is denoted from left to right:

  • Floral symmetry

  • Number of sepals

  • Number of petals

  • Number of stamens

  • Number of carpels

2. Write Down the Floral Formula of Solanaceae.

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3. What are the important features to distinguish  Solanaceae?

Solanaceae can be distinguished easily by its key features and properties. Few of the properties and features of Solanaceae are stated here. They are found in the form of shrubs, herbs, trees, or lianas with internal phloem, spiral leaves, which have usually 5-merous perianth (corolla involute in aestivation) and are roeciumare, also they are usually bicarpellate and have a syncarpous gynoecium, having numerous ovules in the individual carpel, capsule or drupe.

4. What is the importance of the Floral Formula?

Floral Formula is an important topic because they are a quick and easy approach to recall and remember the morphology of flowers, their symmetry, and sexuality, along with other things. Learning the floral formula helps in reflecting the floral characteristics with the help of which we can also build the floral diagram. Also, it is the finest approach to explaining the floral qualities of a certain family. Floral symmetry, floral whorls, and other floral properties are usually represented using a combination of floral formula and the floral diagram.

5. What is the floral formula of tomato?

The floral formula of Tomato is ⊕ ⚥ P2A3G1.