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What are the Causes of Natural Disasters?

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Last updated date: 15th Jul 2024
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Introduction to Natural Disaster

Large-scale geological or meteorological phenomena that have the potential to cause loss of life or property are considered natural disasters. Studying past natural disasters is the best technique to predict when future ones will happen. This provides critical data to scientists about the events surrounding disasters. It helps in the understanding of the natural processes behind disasters by scientists.

The causes of hurricanes, tornadoes, and flooding are now well understood by scientists. But it's far more difficult to predict things like earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Avalanches, droughts, flooding, hurricanes, tornadoes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and wildfires are a few examples of the various forms of natural disasters. We're going to take a closer look at the forecast and prevention of typical natural disasters.

Natural Disaster

Natural Disaster

What are Natural Disasters?

A natural disaster is described as "a big event caused by Earth's natural processes that causes widespread destruction of the environment and loss of lives."

A natural hazard often precedes a natural disaster. The Gujarat Earthquake, which happened on January 26, 2001, is an example of a natural disaster. The natural hazard is found beneath the state of Gujarat's active fault lines.

Causes of Natural Disasters

The main causes of natural disasters are tectonic shifts, lunar activities, deforestation, soil erosion, air pressure, ocean currents, pollution, global warming, mining, seismic waves, etc.

Agricultural practices, mining, deforestation, etc., can lead to landslides. Plants and animals can also be damaged by wildfires.

What is Predicting Natural Disasters?

Natural disasters like hurricanes, earthquakes, and flooding cannot be stopped. However, there are still ways to reduce the damage caused by natural disasters. Prediction and warning systems, education, preparation, and public awareness can minimise the consequences of a natural disaster on communities. Property and natural resources can be secured when a warning of an approaching disaster can be given well in advance, as it can for some riverine floods, wildfires, and hurricanes.

Reducing the Impact of Natural Disasters

Some natural disasters cannot be prevented. They are uncontrollable by people because of the natural factors that cause them. However, there are several strategies to minimise their consequences, including planning for natural disasters, preventing them where possible, and reducing how they affect people.

There are two basic approaches to reducing the effects of natural disasters. A disaster can be predicted through warning systems, and the difficulties it causes can be resolved with the aid of relief organisations. The deaths caused by natural disasters can potentially be avoided with careful planning. People should decide not to construct cities, for instance, around active volcanoes, earthquake zones, or floodplains.

Scientists from around the world have developed some preliminary calculations to help us predict when, where, and how strongly another earthquake, tsunami, volcano eruption, or any other natural disaster will occur.

Which Natural Disasters Can be Forecasted?

A natural disaster is an unanticipated, dreadful event that causes substantial damage and casualties. A few examples of natural disasters are cyclones, volcanoes, earthquakes, floods, and landslides. Floods can also be forecast based on river water levels. Floods and tornadoes can be forecast. Based on scientific evidence, tornadoes can be predicted. We can predict when and where it will happen based on historical patterns in records. It is impossible to forecast other natural disasters, such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

Cyclone and Volcano

Cyclone And Volcano

Latest Means of Forecasting Disasters

Forecasting is the process of analysing data that has been gathered over a long period and using it to develop a strategy to "predict the likely weather" and its effects.

  • In the field of forecasting, the method has advanced much like how algorithms are developed in programming languages that can efficiently analyse a massive amount of data, process the outputs, and generate predictions.

  • The GIS system's data collection aids in both preparing for and responding to natural disasters.

Solutions to Prevent Natural Disasters

Technology has made great strides in predicting the onset of natural disasters. But it's impossible to stop the harm these catastrophes cause. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the different kinds of natural disasters and the techniques of disaster management can help individuals better cope with such situations.

Finding solutions to lessen the negative effects of natural disasters is essential because it is impossible to prevent their occurrence.

Strategies to Minimise the Impact of Serious Natural Disasters

Here are some strategies to minimise the impact of serious natural disasters

  • Assembling medical supplies for emergencies and monitoring weather updates

  • Building shelters and stocking food supplies are risk mitigation strategies.

  • Purchasing cutting-edge equipment to make precise weather forecasts

  • Evacuating more disaster-prone areas

  • Reforestation

  • Economic assistance

  • Public awareness

Some Natural Calamities

Here you will get the answer to questions like name some natural calamities. Natural disasters can be categorised in different ways as following

Geological Disasters - Geological disasters are uncontrolled events that come from changes in the earth, either above or below the surface. Earthquakes, Volcanic Eruptions, Avalanches, Landslides, and Sinkholes.

Geological Disasters

Geological Disasters

Hydrological Disasters - A sudden and severe incident known as a "hydrological disaster" is a situation that results from a change in the quality, distribution, or movement of water below the surface or in the atmosphere. Ex. Tsunami, Flood, and Limnic Eruption.

Hydrological Disasters

Hydrological Disasters

Meteorological Disasters - Extreme weather conditions like rain, snow, or drought are frequently to blame for meteorological disasters. These have an impact on the formation of weather and the atmosphere of the world. Cyclonic Storms, Drought, Cold Waves, Heat Waves, Blizzards, Tornadoes, and Hailstorms.

Meteorological Disasters

Meteorological Disasters


Disasters are sudden events that significantly harm people, property, and societal components of a country or community. A natural disaster is an unimaginable, dangerous event that causes substantial damage and casualties. A natural disaster is an unforeseen, terrible event that results in significant damage and casualties. Cyclones, volcanoes, earthquakes, floods, and landslides are a few examples of natural disasters. Some disasters, like tornadoes, are predictable.

Globally, scientists are developing some preliminary calculations that will help us predict when, where, and how strong another earthquake, tsunami, volcano eruption, or any other natural disaster will occur. However, the world currently lacks totally precise technology. In this article, we have covered all the reducing impacts of natural disasters.

FAQs on What are the Causes of Natural Disasters?

1. What kinds of natural disasters might you expect in India?

India frequently experiences natural disasters like earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, and flash floods.

2. Which organisation takes care of natural disasters?

Natural Disaster Management Office(NDMO) takes care of and watches natural disasters.

3. What are the two main types of disasters?

The two main types of disasters are Natural disasters and man-made disasters. Typically, weather-related and geological occurrences including droughts, floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and severe temperatures are linked to natural disasters. Crime, arson, civil unrest, terrorism, war, biological/chemical threat, cyberattacks, etc. are examples of man-made disasters.