We can say that matter is the substance which occupies space, which has definite mass, which can exert pressure, can produce physical resistance, and whose existence can be felt by our senses.
For example - Air and water; hydrogen and oxygen; sugar and sand; silver and steel; iron and wood; ice and wine; milk and oil; carbon dioxide and steam; carbon and sulphur; Rocks and minerals etc. These are different types of matter that have mass and volume and occupy space.
Properties of Matter for Kids
The Properties of Matter can be general or specific. General properties of matter are those whose characteristics are common to all bodies:
Quantity or Extent: The space occupied by a body.
Weight: The force exerted by gravity on bodies.
Porosity: The space that exists between particles.
Inertia: The characteristic that prevents matter from moving without interference from an external force.
Impenetrability: The property that one body cannot use the space of another body at the same time.
Divisibility: The ability of matter to be divided into smaller parts.
It is important to emphasise that its properties are always influenced by the gravitational forces of the environment in which they are found and by the forces of attraction between the molecules that make up it.
Types of Matter
Substances are divided into two categories based on composition:
The substances in this structure depend entirely on the existing intermolecular forces between their molecules. Based on physical structure, the matter is divided into three groups – solid, liquid, and gas.
The matter is divided into three groups - elements, compounds, and mixtures.
States of Matter
States of Matter
Physical States of Matter:
Based on their physical states, substances are classified into three main classes: solid, liquid, and gas. The fourth state of plasma has also been considered. The fifth state is Bose-Einstein condensate.
Solid State: The state of matter in which its shape and volume are fixed. Like iron, gold, wood, salt, diamond etc. When the force of attraction between the molecules of a substance is stronger than the separating force, the substance remains in a solid state. Due to the strong force of attraction, solids are densely condensed, that is, they are very close together and their positions are fixed.
Liquid State: Liquid is that state of matter in which its volume is fixed but its shape is uncertain, e.g., milk, water, oil, mercury etc. The size of the liquid depends on the vessel in which it is kept. When the force of attraction in a substance is only slightly stronger than the separating force, the substance remains in a liquid state.
Thus, the mutual attraction between the molecules of a liquid substance is weaker than that of the solid state. For this reason, the molecules in liquids are less densely condensed and free to move.
Gaseous State: Hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, chlorine etc. are gaseous substances. Matter in the gaseous state has neither shape nor volume. Due to the very weak force of attraction, the molecules of a gaseous substance are much farther away from each other than solid and liquid substances and are free to move in all possible directions.
States of Matter: Solid, Liquid, and Gas
Examples of Plasma
1. Write the name of the physical state of matter that has an indefinite shape and a definite volume.
Ans: Liquid is the state of matter that has an indefinite shape but a definite volume.
2. What is the physical state of matter whose shape and volume are both uncertain?
Ans: Gas is the physical state of matter whose shape and volume are both uncertain.
Learning by Doing
1. Which of the following are substances?
2. How many states of water are found in nature?
The matter is that which occupies space and has weight. There are three states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. Both the shape and volume of a solid substance are fixed. The volume of a liquid is fixed but the shape is not fixed. Both the volume and shape of the gas are uncertain.