Types of Steel and Their Properties
Mankind began working with iron some 6,000 years ago. After it, steel production began. Steel is widely employed in everyday life, including in kitchenware, building, the medical area, and electrical appliances, among other things. Do you believe all of these items are made of the same type of steel? There are various varieties of steel that are adjusted to meet the needs of a specific product's production.
What is Steel?
Steel is an iron alloy that is largely made up of iron and other alloys that give it its distinct qualities. Steel is categorized into four classes, each of which is further segmented for specific purposes. These are the four varieties of steel.,
Along with these types let us learn about types of steel bars, types of steel used in construction, and their properties.
Types of Steel and their Properties
All varieties of steel contain carbon, but carbon steel is distinguished by the absence of many additional components. Despite the fact that this steel has a carbon content of roughly 2%. Its elemental nature makes it strong and resilient, allowing it to be employed for a variety of purposes. Carbon steel and cast iron are frequently mistaken; however, the carbon content of each may be distinguished. The carbon content of carbon steel affects its characteristics.
Types of Carbon Steel:
It is subdivided depending on the carbon content, where it gets increased in each type.
Low Carbon: It is the most often used and the least priced variety. It is simple to make since it is very ductile and can be stretched under tension. Wires, pipes, and bolts are all made from it.
Medium Carbon: This grade of steel has a carbon content of 0.31 to 0.6 percent. This is why they are extremely strong and have a low ductility. They're utilised to construct railway rails and gears.
High Carbon: It has a carbon content of greater than 0.61 percent. It's used to manufacture brick nails as well as trencher blades and other sharp cutting nails.
Medical equipment and appliances frequently use stainless steel. The element chromium is utilised in the manufacture of stainless steel. Because this element is resistant to oxidation, it contributes to the metal's durability by preventing rusting. Depending on the application, chromium concentration might range from 10.5 percent to 30 percent. The higher the chromium concentration, the more glossy it appears and the more corrosion resistant it is.
Types of Stainless Steel:
It is commonly used in medical, kitchen, and automotive products.
Martensitic Alloys: Toughness is a distinguishing feature of these alloys. These are generated as a result of rapid cooling, making them perfect for the heat treatment process. Medical devices, pliers, and cutlery all include them. They are, nevertheless, prone to corrosion.
Ferritic Alloys: These alloys are less expensive because they include low levels of carbon and nickel. They are employed in automotive applications because of their high chromium induced strength and gloss.
Austenitic Alloys: These alloys have a greater nickel and chromium concentration. As a result, their corrosion resistance has grown, and they are non-magnetic in nature. They are utilised in culinary utensils because they are robust and easy to clean.
Duplex Alloys: It's a ferritic and austenitic alloy mixed together. It inherits both types' properties while doubling their strength. They are ductile and have a good corrosion resistance.
When iron is fused with a variety of other elements, each one contributes to the end result. All steels are alloys, but only a few of them have distinct names. It comprises a wide variety of alloys with similar properties. The qualities of various alloy steels allow them to be modified for specific uses. The second element in the mix, on the other hand, requires a high price. The following are the most regularly used alloys:
Aluminium: They are lightweight, highly resistant to heat, and ductile. Hence they are used in hot exhaust systems and power generators.
Copper: They are good conductors of heat and resistive to corrosion. Thus they are choosed in making of electrical wires and industrial heat exchangers.
Manganese: Due to its extremely tough quality they are used in bullet proof cabinets and anti-drill plates.
Molybdenum: It is resistant to corrosion, weldable and it can perform under higher pressures. Thus suitable for oil and gas pipelines and for underwater construction.
Silicon: It is a soft-natured steel, that is highly malleable and magnetic. They are used to make strong magnets and used in electrical transformers.
Vanadium: It is the high impact steel that resistant to vibration and shock-absorbent. It is used in automotive parts such as ssprings and shocks.
By tempering the process of adding high heat, cooling it quickly, and heating again makes the tool steel. It is extremely hard and resistant to heat.
Air Hardening: Due to the high chromium content in this steel it makes the ideal for the exposure to high temperatures.
Water Hardening: While using this type of steel it undergoes a water quenching process. It is the most affordable type and used to make common tools.
Oil Hardening: This type of steel is quenched in oil. It is wear resistant from slipping. Hence it is used to make knives and shears.
Hot Working: This type of steel can withstand high temperatures and hence used in forging and casting.
Shock resisting: It is hard in nature hence used in manufacture of punches and riveting tools.
Types of Steel Bars
There are five types of steel bars:
Hot Rolled Deformed Bars: they are also known as thermo-mechanically treated bars or TMT bars. These are used for superior strengths in the concrete structures. It consists of ribs that help them to hold the concrete firmly.
Cold Rolled Steel Bars: Even though they are made at room temperatures, they look similar in structure as of hot rolled steel bars. They are poor in strength and can be bent into any shape. They are used in construction where high tolerance is not required.
Mild Steel Bars: These steel bars have a plain surface and are circular in nature. They are used in concrete structures as beams and slabs. They are poor in quality and cannot blend well with concrete as hot rolled bars. Thus it is used in budget constraints and small projects.
Twisted Steel Bars: They are also called prestressing tendons. They are made of different wires. About seven wires are spinned to form a single strand. It has high tesile strength.
Welded Steel Wire: These consist of a weld mesh that provides medium strength. They are used while partitioning or in fencing. It is available in different diameters and is said to be strong compared to mild steel. Due to this reason it is widely used for construction for efficiency.
Due to its high tensile strength the widely accepted and used steel bars worldwide are TMT bars. Along with providing the strength they are flexible too. Thus it can provide its maximum protection against any kind of natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods etc. As they have less content of carbon they are highly resistant to corrosion.
Types of Steel Used in Construction
Light Guage Steel: Based on teh specific standards it is made from thin sheets. Using cold deformed steel it can be used to make steel frame system. It is flexible and safe to use. It is one of the different types of steel that is used in flooring.
Structural Steel: It is one of the most important and frequently used type of steel in construction where it is used to provide base or structural support. It is available in different shapes and sizes, few examples include I-beam, plate type, T shaped etc.
Mild Steel: It is a plain carbon steel that is known for its strength. It is used in both conventional and pre-engineered buildings.
Rebar Steel: It is a reinforcing steel, that reinforces the structure that fixes with the concrete. For the building purposes it is used in the form of a mesh. These can also be manufactured for long lengths.
With average minimum prices, with unique combinations, different types and with various properties the steel industries are found booming. These qualities make them to be used in various applications.
FAQs on Steel Industry is Booming!
1. What are the chemical properties of steel?
The variations in the chemical composition of steel can lead to various grades and properties. Steel standards can provide limitations for the parameters such as composition, quality and the performance of the steel. Chemical composition can be determined by instrumental analysis either optical emission spectrometer (OES) or wet analysis methods are used. Chemical composition can also determine carbon equivalents, it is a parameter that determines the behavior of steel.
2. What are steel structures? Mention the types of steel structures.
Steel structures are the metal structures that are made of structural steel, where the components are connected with each other in order to carry loads and provide full rigidity.
Different types of steel structures include:
Truss Systems and Frame Systems
Built-up Members and Structures