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Drainage Systems

Last updated date: 04th Mar 2024
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An Introduction to Drainage Systems

Drainage systems are in place to remove waste water or extra water. If we do not have a proper drainage system, it may lead to floods in the low-lying areas and hence causing damage to property and health. An improper drainage system may also cause various kinds of disease and act as a breeding ground for various insects.

What are Drainage Systems?

Drainage is defined as the natural or artificial method to remove excess water/wastewater from one place to another place through channels.

Residential Drainage System

A residential drainage system removes extra water from the residential area. This system helps whisk water away from roofs, driveways, roadways, and homes.

Types of Drainage Systems

There are mainly four types of drainage systems:

  • Surface Drainage System

  • Subsurface Drainage System

  • Slope Drainage System

  • Downspout and Gutter System

Surface Drainage System

For the surface drainage system, it is needed to dig a few ditches which are used as a funnel for excess water. With this, we can send water away from home or any area to prevent flooding.

This type of drainage system is mostly found on very flat land. It is done to prevent rainwater accumulation on a flat surface because the accumulation of rainwater on a flat surface can lead to damage to our homes.

Subsurface Drainage System

For the subsurface drainage system, we use a drain or a pipe that goes deep inside the soil. Here, we can also use a sump pump to push water through these pipes as well. These drainage systems are made to remove excess water from the soil. Plants can grow properly with this drainage system because excess water that is trapped in roots or plants can cause them to rot.

Slope Drainage System

In this drainage system, pipes are installed on an inclined surface. This makes water move naturally away from the home or any area. Pipes can be made of steel, concrete, or plastic and wrapped with a protective layer.

Downspout and Gutter System

In this drainage system, the downspout is connected to the gutter, which gets rid of excess water that builds on the roof. It is the most essential drainage system used at home. Without this system, rainwater comes off the roof and damages our house.

Open Drainage

The open drainage system utilises tail, open side ditches, and lateral and outfall ditches. The open drainage system is mostly used to collect wastewater that is not sewage. These types of drainage systems are used to dispose of sanitary waste that is highly unhygienic and unsafe.

The open drainage system is not safe to use because people can easily come in contact with this and it may cause various types of disease in people. The benefit of this type of drainage system is it is convenient to build and maintain.

Closed Drainage System

This type of drainage system forms a closed underground network. In this type of drainage system, first refuse is collected from individual areas and then transported to the main network at last goes to the treatment plant.

A closed drainage system prevents human contact with waste and wastewater. It also prevents the spreading of disease. And also does not act as a breeding ground for insects. Cleaning a closed drainage system is easier than an open drainage system.


The drainage system is the system used to remove waste or extra water. There are four types of drainage systems. The open and closed drainage system is also there. Closed drainage systems are better than open drainage systems. Drain systems are an important necessity in human civilization to maintain hygienic conditions.

FAQs on Drainage Systems

1. How do you maintain a drainage system?

There are various ways to maintain a healthy or clean drainage system.

1. Drain Guard -  These can be used to plug holes to reduce the amount of waste that gets washed in the sink.
2. Drain Cleaner - Drain cleaner is used to clean the drain.
3. Boiling Water - Use boiling water regularly to wash and clean the sink and drain.
4. Washing Pets - Lay a wash cover to reduce the amount of hair that goes into the drain. Otherwise, it may clog the holes of the drain. 
5. Garbage Disposal - Clean garbage disposal especially once a month.

2. What are the problems with drainage?

There are various problems associated with drainage. 

  • Blocked Drains - grains may be blocked due to poor cleaning or passing large dust particles into the drain.

  • Slow Drains - Slow drainage may be a big issue. To resolve this issue, we must consult with a drainage company.

  • Smelly Drains -  Due to blockage, there may be an accumulation of some harmful bacteria or microbes which may cause a poor smell from the drain.

  • Pest in the Drain - Pest in the drain may cause various diseases.

  • Collapsed Drains - may be a major issue.

3.  Why is a drainage system necessary at home?

Drainage systems are required to remove waste and extra water from the home. It is necessary to have a drainage system at home to remove flood water, rainwater, or wastewater. A system that is used to remove wastewater is known as a sewer.

4. Where is the main drain in the house?

The main drain is the area where waste or extra water from houses from all sources is collected. Generally, the main drain in the house is in the garage, crawl space, or basement. Some houses have indoor sewer line cleanout points while some might be present outside of the house.