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Forms of Business Organisation Class 11 Notes CBSE Business Studies Chapter 2 (Free PDF Download)

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Revision Notes for CBSE Class 11 Business Studies Chapter 2 - Free PDF Download

CBSE Class 11 Business Studies Chapter 11 Notes by Vedantu are meant to provide the students with a clear and concise understanding of the chapter. In these notes, students will find a comprehensive outline of notes of the chapter with solved exercises to assist them with understanding the chapter better. These revision notes and activities will help students with a radical understanding of the topic. The Chapter 2 Business Studies Notes PDF are created to help students with their preparation for their exams and to help them ace it. Students will be able to download the Class 11 Business Studies Chapter 2 Notes in the PDF format absolutely free of cost.


Revision Notes for CBSE Class 11 Business Studies Chapter 2 - Topics Covered 

Following are the topics that are covered in Chapter 2 - Forms of Business Organizations:

  • Introduction

  • Sole proprietorship

  • Joint Hindu family business

  • Partnership

  • Types of partner

  • Types of partnership

  • Partnership deed

  • Registration of partnership firm

  • Joint stock company

  • Types of companies


Download CBSE Class 11 Business Studies Revision Notes 2024-25 PDF

Also, check CBSE Class 11 Business Studies revision notes for All chapters:


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Access Class 11 Business Studies Chapter 2 - Forms Of Business Organization Notes

Forms of Business Organisation

There are different forms of business organizations from which a choice has to be made:

  1. Sole proprietorship

  2. Joint Hindu family business

  3. Partnership

  4. Joint stock Company

  5. Cooperative Societies


Sole Proprietorship

It is a form of organisation which is owned, managed and controlled by an individual who bears all the risk and receives all the profit.


Features

  1. Formation and closure: It can be established and closed without any legal formalities.

  2. Liability: The liability of the sole proprietor is unlimited in this form of business organisation.

  3. Sole risk bearer and profit recipient: Being a sole owner, he bears all the risk and receives all the profits.

  4. Control: All the decisions are taken and implemented in the organization by the owner.

  5. No separate entity: Both owner and business are considered as one in the eyes of law.

  6. Lack of business continuity: Business can be continued till the owner wishes to. 


Merits

  • Quick decision making: Prompt decision making as all the decisions are to be taken by the owner.

  • Confidentiality of information: Being a sole owner, it is easy to maintain business secrecy.

  • Direct incentive: All the profits are enjoyed by the owner as there is no one to share profits.

  • Sense of accomplishment: Successful business provides satisfaction to the owner and sense of achievement.

  • Ease of formation and closure: No legal formalities for formation and closure of business which makes it easy to start and end the business. 


Limitations

  • Limited resources: Business can be funded from savings of the owner or money borrowed from friends, relatives.

  • Limited life of a business concern: Continuity of the business depends on the health and state of mind of the owner.

  • Unlimited liability: In case business fails repayment of debts, his personal assets are at risk. 

  • Limited managerial ability: One person may not possess the ability to manage all the functions.


Joint Hindu Family Business

It is a form of business which is owned and managed by members of Hindu undivided family, with the possibility of three successive generations as members in the business.


Features

  • Formation: Hindu Undivided Family is formed with at least two members of a family having ancestral property. It is governed by Hindu Succession Act, 1956.

  • Liability: All the members of the family except Karta have limited liability up to their share in the business property.

  • Control:  All the activities in the business organization are controlled by Karta.

  • Continuity: It can be discontinued if all the members of the family agree to do so.

  • Minor members: Membership in the organization is by birth.


Merits

  • Effective control: Complete control of business with ‘Karta’ thus effective decision making.

  • Continued business existence: Business continues till all the members wish to continue and control is transferred to the next elder member in case of death of ‘Karta’.

  • Limited liability of members: Members of the family enjoy liability limited to their share in the business party.

  • Increased loyalty and cooperation: Family members have a sense of belongingness and loyalty, hence, all work with a common objective of growth. 


Limitations

  • Limited resources: Business can be funded mainly from ancestral property, hence limiting the financial resources.

  • Unlimited liability of Karta: The personal property of ‘Karta’ is at risk as he has unlimited liability.

  • Dominance of Karta: Difference of opinion among members and ‘Karta’ may cause conflict amongst them.

  • Limited managerial skills: Karta may not have knowledge and expertise of all the functions performed in the business.


Partnership

According to partnership Act 1932, partnership is the relation between persons who have agreed to share the profits of the business carried on by all or any one of them acting for all.


Features

  • Formation: Business is established as per the provisions of partnership Act 1932.

  • Liability: All the partners in the business have unlimited liability.

  • Risk bearing: All the risk in the business is shared by all the partners.

  • Decision making and control: All the decisions are taken in after the consent of all the partners and each partner shares responsibility of running business.

  • Continuity: Continuity depends upon the partnership deed among the partners at the time of its formation.

  • Number of partners: Minimum 2 and maximum 50 members [as per the Companies (miscellaneous) Rules 2014}, or maximum could be 100 ( according to Companies Act, 2013).

  • Mutual agency: Each partner is the owner as well as the agent of the firm and agent to other partners.


Merits

  • Ease of formation and closure: Business can be established and closed with the consent of all the partners as the registration is optional.

  • Balanced decision making: All the decisions are taken by consent partners as  partners undertake responsibilities as per their expertise.

  • More funds: Funds are provided by all the partners, which increases the scope for large-scale business operation.

  • Sharing of risks: Business risk and responsibilities are shared among all the partners.

  • Secrecy: It is easy to maintain business secrecy as there is no need to submit financial results.


Limitations

  • Unlimited liability: Each partner’s liability is extended to their personal property.

  • Limited resources: Availability of Finance is limited due to the restriction of number of partners.

  • Possibility of conflicts: All the partners may have different opinions which create conflict among them.

  • Lack of continuity: Any conflict between partners or death of a partner may bring business to an end.

  • Lack of public confidence: It is difficult for an outsider to ascertain true financial position as there is a lack of availability of financial reports.


Types of Partners

  • Active partner: A partner who contributes capital, shares profits and losses, participates in management and has unlimited liability.

  • Sleeping or dormant partner: Partner who contributes capital, shares profits and losses and has unlimited liability but does not participate in management.

  • Secret partner: This partner participates in management operations secretly, but does contribute in profits and losses.

  • Nominal partner: Partner who does not contribute capital and does not share profit and losses but allows partnership business to project him or her as partner.

  • Partner by estoppel: An individual who is not a partner but projects himself/herself as a partner to an outsider and has unlimited liability.

  • Partner by holding out: An individual who is not a partner but is projected as a partner by other partners of the partnership firm and his liability is unlimited.


Partner

Contribution Of Capital

Management

Profit/Loss Sharing

Liability

Active

Yes

Yes

Yes

Unlimited

Sleeping

Yes

No

Yes

Unlimited

Secret

Yes

Yes, but secretly

Yes

Unlimited

Nominal

No

No

Generally Yes

Unlimited

Partner by Estoppel

No

No

No

Unlimited

Partner by Holding out

No

No

No

Unlimited


Minor as partner: 

An individual of age below 18 years can be admitted with mutual consent of all other partners but legally he is not a partner.


Types of partnership

Partnership can be categorised on the basis of duration and liability:


Classification on the basis of duration

  • Partnership at will: Partnership continues till the partners agree to do so.

  • Particular partnership: The partnership formed for a specific task for project or for a specific period of time. It comes to an end after completion of task or expiry of time.


Classification on the basis of liability

  • General partnership: Partnership where all partners have joint and unlimited liability

  • Limited partnership: Partnership where all partners have limited liability and at least one partner must have unlimited liability.


Partnership deed

A written document where all the terms and conditions of partnership are mentioned. It generally has following clauses:

  • Name of firm

  • Nature of firm

  • Duration of partnership

  • Duties and obligations of partners

  • Valuation of assets

  • Interest on capital and interest on drawings

  • Profit-loss sharing ratio

  • Salaries and withdrawals of the partners.

  • Preparation of accounts and their auditing.

  • Procedure for dissolution of firm

  • Method of solving disputes.


Registration

It is optional for a partnership firm to get registered with the registrar of firms of the state in which form is situated.


Consequences of non registration

  • In case of non registration, a partner cannot file a case or file suit against other partners or the partnership firm.

  • Firm cannot sue third parties.

  • The form cannot file a case against one or more partners of the firm.


Procedure for getting firm registered

  • Submission of application in prescribed form with the Registrar of Firms.

  • Fee deposition with the Registrar.

  • Receiving certificate of registration after the Registrar is satisfied.


Cooperative Society

An organisation of voluntary people working for a common purpose with an aim to protect economic and social interests of the members. It must be registered under the Cooperative Societies Act, 1912.


Features

  • Voluntary membership: Any individual irrespective of caste, gender, religion with common interest is free to join or leave a cooperative society as and when he/she desires.

  • Legal status: Cooperative society has separate identity status distinct from its members, and the registration of such society is also mandatory.

  • Limited liability: Members have liability limited to their capital contribution.

  • Control: All the decision making power is in the hands of an elected managing committee which are chosen by members with one man one vote concept.

  • Service motive: Society is formed with the motive of providing mutual help to team members.


Merits

  • Equality in voting status: Each member has equal right to vote and elect members of the managing committee.

  • Limited liability: The liability of members is limited to their capital contribution.

  • Stable existence: Cooperative societies keep on going irrespective of situations of death, bankruptcy or insanity of its members.

  • Economy in operations: The members of the society work voluntarily which helps in reducing costs.

  • Support from government: Government provides support to societies in the form of lower taxes, interest rates and subsidies.

  • Ease of formation: No legal formalities are involved in formation of societies.


Limitations

  • Limited resources: Capital contribution by the member is the only source of finance, and low dividend also discourages members for the provision of finance to the society.

  • Inefficiency in management: Members working on voluntary basis may lack necessary expertise and skills, leading to inefficiency in operations and management.

  • Lack of secrecy: Difficult to maintain secrecy as members disclose all information related to work of the society in the meeting.

  • Government control: Societies need to follow rules and regulations as stated by the government and submit audited financial reports of the society. However, such government intervention affects the freedom of work for such societies.

  • Differences of opinion: Difference of opinion as a result of individual interest over the welfare may lead to conflicts amongst members.


Types of cooperative societies

  • Consumer’s cooperative societies: Societies formed for providing good quality services and products at a reasonable rate, to protect the interest of consumers.

  • Producer’s cooperative societies: Societies formed for providing good quality and low priced raw materials and other inputs, to protect the interest of producers.

  • Marketing cooperative societies: Societies for providing services related to marketing of products by small producers.

  • Farmer’s cooperative societies: Societies formed for providing farmers with better inputs at reasonable rates to improve productivity.

  • Credit cooperative societies: Societies established to provide financial assistance to its members at very reasonable terms.

  • Cooperative housing societies: Societies formed for constructing houses for its members at reasonable cost.


Joint Stock Company

The Companies Act, 2013 defines, "A company as an artificial person having a separate legal entity, perpetual succession and a common seal."


Features of a Joint Stock Company

  • Artificial person: A company is created by law and has legal status but it does not function like human beings. All business activities are done by the board of directors in the name of the company. 

  • Separate legal entity: A company has its own identity distinct from its owner with the incorporation of a company.

  • Formation: Company is formed by fulfilling all the legal formalities as stated under Companies Act, 2013.

  • Perpetual succession: A company is created by law and can be wound up by law only. Existence of the company is not affected by the status of members.

  • Control: Business affairs of a company are managed and controlled by the Board of Directors.

  • Liability: A company has limited liability i.e., liability only to the extent of the capital contribution.

  • Common seal: As a company is an artificial legal person, it cannot have a sign on its own/ Hence common seal acts as the official signature for a company. All the official documents must have a common seal for legal binding.

  • Risk bearing: The risk of loss is shared by all the shareholders in proportion to their investment in the company.


Merits

  • Limited liability: Shareholders liability is limited to the investment in the company, thus, there is no risk of losing personal assets.

  • Transfer of interest: Shares can easily be sold in the market or can be converted into cash.

  • Perpetual existence: Company's existence is not affected by the status of shareholders, company continues to exist.

  • Scope for expansion: Companies can raise large amounts of funds from the public as well as borrowings from financial institutions or banks.

  • Professional management: large-scale operation requires management by professionals and specialised individuals.


Limitations

  • Complexity in formation: Formation of a company requires fulfilling of documentation and legal formalities which makes the procedure lengthy and complex.

  • Lack of secrecy: All financial information is disclosed to the general public that there is no confidentiality or secrecy.

  • Impersonal work environment: Business affairs are managed by professionals not owners, thus, it lacks personal contact with employees and customers.

  • Numerous regulations: A company involves various rules and regulations which reduces freedom to work and involves a lot of money, time and effort.

  • Delay in decision making: Decision making needs to follow a set of hierarchy which may cause delay in taking decisions and actions.

  • Oligarchic management: Shareholders have very little control over the running of business, thus, the directors take all the decisions which may at times get influenced by their personal interest.

  • Conflict in interests: It is difficult for management to satisfy everyone as there are too many stakeholders with diverse interests.


Types of Companies 

  1. Private Company

  • A company must have minimum 2 or maximum 200 members.

  • Right to transfer shares is restricted.

  • Funds cannot be generated from the general public.

  • Uses 'Private Limited' after the company name.


  1. Public Company

  • Minimum 7 members with no limit on maximum members.

  • Free to transfer shares. 

  • Issue shares to the general public.

  • Uses 'Public Limited' after the company name.


Difference between Public and Private Company

Basis

Public Company

Private Company

Members

Minimum: 7 members

Maximum: Unlimited

Minimum: 2 members

Maximum: 200

Minimum number of directors

3 directors

2 directors

Invitation to Public

Can invite public for subscription

Cannot invite public for subscription

Transfer of shares

Can transfer

Cannot transfer

Index of Members

Compulsory

Not compulsory


Choice of Form of Business Organisation

  • Cost and ease in setting up the organisation: It is easy to start sole proprietorship with minimum cost and legal requirements whereas formation of a company is a complex task with lengthy legal procedure. But partnership has the advantage of less legal requirements with low cost.

  • Liability: In sole proprietorship and partnership, the liability of owner or partners is unlimited but in cooperative societies and companies, members have limited liability.

  • Continuity: In sole proprietorship and partnership, continuity is affected by death and insolvency of the owners but cooperative societies, companies and Hindu undivided family enjoy perpetual existence.

  • Management ability: In sole proprietorship, it is difficult that the owner may have expertise in all functions but in other forms of business, division of work is possible which leads to better decision making.

  • Capital consideration: In case of large scale of operation, company form is more suitable but in case of small scale of operation, partnership or sole proprietorship can be chosen.

  • Degree of control: If the owner wants all the control in his hand the sole proprietorship may be preferred but if the owner is ready to share control, then he can adopt partnership or company form.

  • Nature of business: For trading and services, sole proprietorship and partnership form can be chosen. For manufacturing, a company form of organisation can be adopted.


Revision Notes for CBSE Class 11 Business Studies Chapter 2 - Benefits of Revision Notes

  1. Revision Notes of Chapter 2 will help the students of Class 11 to study Chapter 2 of Business Studies in a capsulated manner. 

  2. The revision notes of Chapter 2 are prepared by subject experts here at Vedantu, and thus these notes can be revised reliably by the students. 

  3. Revision helps the students to keep the concepts fresh in their minds without much hard work, thus opt for smart work and download our revision notes so are prepared well for the exams. 

  4. Revision Notes will also help the students to revise the whole Chapter 2 in less time thus saving time for other subjects' preparation. 

  5. Revising is a mandatory habit of the students, but making revision notes might be time-consuming thus study our ready-to-revise revision notes and revise accordingly. 


Revision Notes for CBSE Class 11 Business Studies Chapter 2 - Key Takeaways 

In this chapter students will look into sole proprietorship, Joint Hindu Family, Partnership, cooperative society and joint-stock company. In this revision notes of Class 11 CH 2 Business Studies by Vedantu, students will understand the merits, demerits and various characteristics of each type of Organisation. Each of these organizations is compared against each other for students to understand the advantage each type of organization has over another. The various types of organization have different kinds of features, and they are distinct from one another, and Notes of Chapter 2 of Business Studies includes all the important details.


Types of Organizations

Sole Proprietorship - In this type of organization, there is the only person who is the sole owner and recipient of all profits and losses earned by the organization and also the bearer of all risks. Here, there are no separate laws to govern sole proprietorship, and the owner is liable for all of their actions. The owner is also solely responsible for the ownership and also for running the business. In this type of organisation, the owner doesn't have to consult anyone before making their decision. They are able to keep their business ideas a secret and maintain overall secrecy.

Joint Hindu Family - This type of organization is where membership of members is granted only if they are born in the family. This is a business model that is based on family, and the heirs are directly successive from their father. This type of organization holds a lot of values and specific discipline that cannot be broken. The head of the family is called Karta. This type of organization requires only two members and ancestral property. The liability of the partners is limited only by the share that they hold.

Partnership - This implies the relationship between partners that have agreed to share the profits of the business and its losses. This was governed by the Indian Partnership Act of 1932. Here the partners of the firm have unlimited liability and are liable for all the decisions taken. The Partners share the profits in a ratio agreed upon beforehand. Lack of continuity or death can bring this Partnership to an end. Partners can oversee the various functions according to their expertise. The capital is contributed by all the partners.

Cooperative Society - This is a voluntary association of people to overlook the welfare of the members. This type of organization oversees the economic interests of the members and to avoid the exploitation by the middleman. This society can enter into contracts; they can sue and be sued. The liability of the members of the society is limited to how much they contribute to the capital. The principle of one man one vote exits as each member has equal voting rights.

Joint Stock Company - This type of organization is a creation of the law and is independent of its members. The company acquires a separate legal entity, and the law doesn't have the business and the owners as one. The formation of the company is time-consuming, expensive and very complicated. the shareholders are liable to the extent of unpaid shares paid by them.


Revision Notes for CBSE Class 11 Business Studies Chapter 2 - Extra Questions and Answers for Practice

1. What do you mean by ‘Partner by Estoppel’?

Ans. Partner by estoppel means such a person who by his action or words plays under the impression that he or she is the partner in the particular firm.


2. What is an artificial person?

Ans. A company or business entity is referred to as an artificial person as unlike human beings it cannot walk, sleep, breathe and eat. However, it is bound by the law as it is created as a legal entity. It can sue or get sued by other firms. 


3. Explain the types of Cooperative Studies. 

Ans. 

1. Consumer Cooperative: These are formed in order to make consumer goods available at reasonable rates to their members.

2. Producer Cooperative: The objective is to procure materials and machinery and supply them to the members at low prices.

3. Farmers’ Cooperative: An association of small farmers who join together for maximizing their productivity and earning potential

4. Housing Cooperative: These aim towards providing affordable housing solutions to its members.

5. Marketing Cooperative: These cooperatives are formed by farmers, small producers, and artisans to promote their services in the market.

6. Credit Cooperative: These cooperatives provide credit to their members at low rates of interest.


Tips to Study Business Studies

Students are required to follow these suggested tips which will help the students to study business studies:

  1. The concepts discussed in business studies must be understood by the students well, this will help them to solve the questions and answers properly. Thus first have conceptual clarity and then proceed on with the questions and answers 

  2. Study Hight Order Thinking Skills questions this will help the student logically grasp the chapters of Business Studies. 

  3. Take the help of the NCERT Notes and Revision Material. 

  4. Solve sample question papers before the exam.  


Hope the students have gained enough help and insights from this revision material. We have provided the pdf to the revision notes which can be downloaded free of cost and referred before the Business Studies exam. 


Students can also solve the extra questions and answers provided in this article. You can also take note of the suggested tips on how you can study Business Studies in CBSE Class 11

FAQs on Forms of Business Organisation Class 11 Notes CBSE Business Studies Chapter 2 (Free PDF Download)

1. What are the Types of Partners?

The types of partners are as follows. 

  • Active Partner - This person takes action in the business on behalf of the partners of the company.

  • Sleeping Partner - This is a partner that doesn't take part in the day to day activities.

  • Secret Partner - Here the partner's identity is kept a secret.

  • Nominal Partner - This partner allows the use of their name in the firm.

  • Holding Out Partner - This person knowingly allows the use of his name in the firm.

2. What are the Types of Partnerships?

The types of partnerships are based on duration and liability. On the basis of duration, there are two types:

  • Partnership at Will - This will go on as long as the partners want it too or unless someone withdraws.

  • Particular Partnership - This partnership is formed because of the accomplishment of some project.

 Based on liability, the different types of partnership are:  

  • General Partnership - The liability of partners is unlimited and joint.

  • Limited Partnership - Here, one partner has unlimited liability, whereas the rest have limited liability.

3. What are the forms of business Organisation Class 11?

The different forms of business organisations that one may choose from are:

  • Sole Proprietorship: owned, controlled and managed by a single individual.

  • Joint Hindu Family Business: organized by two or more male members from one Hindu joint family.

  • Partnership: an association of people agreeing to distribute the profits of a business managed by all.

  • Co-operative Societies: a cooperative form of business with the main aim of mutual help.

  • Joint Stock Company: association of persons for gaining profit and capital divided as transferable shares. Visit the page Class 11 Business Studies Chapter 2 on Vedantu for complete solutions at free of cost from the Vedantu website and the Vedantu app.

4. What do you mean by business enterprise?

Business enterprise refers to any endeavour wherein the main aim is profit instead of the mere employment of oneself or others. It involves the task of offering goods and services including industrial, financial as well as commercial facets.

5. What are the types of partners?

Active Partner: participating in management.

Dormant Partner: not participating in management.

Secret Partner: association with the business is unknown to outsiders.

Nominal Partner: lends their name for the advantage of the business.

Partner by Estoppel: give the impression that they are one of the partners.

Partner by Holding Out: is not a partner, but knowingly lets himself be represented as one.

6. Who are Coparceners Class 11 business studies?

Coparceners are members of a Hindu Undivided Family business other than the Karta. It must consist of propositus along with three lineal descendants. They must have the same rights of ownership over their ancestral property. Visit the page Class 11 Business Studies Chapter 2 on Vedantu for complete solutions at free of cost from the Vedantu website and the Vedantu app.

7. What are the types of partnership in class 11 business studies?

Based on time period the following are the three types of partnership firm

  • Partnership at will

  • Particular partnership

  • Fixed period partnership

Based on the liability of members, the following are the two types of partnership:

  • General partnership

  • Limited partnership