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Write the physical and chemical properties of metals and non-metals.

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Last updated date: 25th Jul 2024
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Answer
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Hint: Metals and non-metals are the two groups of elements that make up all around them. Non-metals include your books, clothing, pencil, water bottle, purse, table, and lock. As a result, understanding the properties of Metals and Non-Metals, as well as how to differentiate between them, is important.

Complete answer:
Metals:
A metal is a substance that has a lustrous appearance when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, and conducts electricity and heat comparatively well. Metals are usually ductile or malleable.
Physical properties of Metals:
$\bullet $ Metals are used in solid form. Except for mercury, which is in a liquid state in its natural state, all metals are solid.
$\bullet $ Metals are naturally malleable. They can be made into thin sheets by pounding them. Metals like aluminium, copper, and silver, for example, can be hammered into small sheets for everyday use.
$\bullet $ Metals have a ductile property. Metals can be stretched into thin wires in this way. Copper and aluminium wires are two materials that we can work with. Both metals are ductile in the same way. Just that certain metals are more ductile than others as used in everyday applications.
$\bullet $ Metals are good conductors of both heat and electricity. Metals have this property, which allows heat and electricity to flow into them. Every metal is an excellent heat and electricity conductor.
Silver is the best heat and electricity conductor, but copper is also a decent conductor. Lead is the weakest heat conductor, while iron and mercury are weak electrical conductors.
$\bullet $ Metals are lustrous. They are lustrous as a result of this, and light incidents on their surface are reflected. Metals may also be brushed, which is one of the reasons that they are used in jewellery.
Metals, with the exception of sodium and potassium, are very solid and hard. Knives may be used to slit them.
Chemical properties of Metals:
$\bullet $ Metals corrode very readily and quickly.
$\bullet $ Metals are prone to losing electrons. They have 1,2 or 3 electrons in their outer shell.
$\bullet $ When metals come into contact with oxygen, they form metal oxides.
$\bullet $ Metals are electropositive elements with low electro-negativities.
$\bullet $ Metals are also effective reducers.

Nonmetals:
Natural materials that do not contain heat or electricity and are structurally brittle are known as non-metals (can not be easily rolled, moulding, extruding or pressing). The non-metallic elements in the periodic table are hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, arsenic, and selenium.

Physical properties of Nonmetals:
$\bullet $ When non-metals are battered, they become porous and crack into fragments. Sulphur and phosphorus are two examples.
$\bullet $ Since nonmetals aren't ductile, they can't be formed into thin wires.
$\bullet $ Since they do not lose electrons to transmit energy, non-metals are insulators or weak conductors of electricity and heat.
$\bullet $ They may exist as solids, liquids, or gases at room temperature.
$\bullet $ They aren't sonorous in any way.
$\bullet $ They can be transparent.

Chemical properties of Nonmetals:
$\bullet $ In the outer shell of non-metals, there are typically 4 to 8 electrons.
$\bullet $ Nonmetals have a proclivity for gaining or accepting valence electrons.
$\bullet $ Non-metals react with oxygen to form acidic oxides when exposed to oxygen.
$\bullet $ Non-metals are electro-negative elements with a high electro-negativity.
$\bullet $ Non-metal elements are excellent oxidizers.
$\bullet $ Water has little effect on these elements.

Note:
Metal is a group of materials with high electrical and thermal conductivity, as well as malleability, ductility, and high light reflectivity. Metals make up about three-quarters of all identified chemical elements. Aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. While the majority of metals are present in ores (mineral-bearing substances), a handful, such as copper, gold, platinum, and silver, are commonly found in their free state because they do not readily react with other elements.