Hint: Botanical gardens are often run by universities or other scientific research organizations, and often have associated herbaria and research programs in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle, their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for scientific research, conservation, display, and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden.
Complete answer: A botanical garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation, preservation, and display of a wide range of plants labeled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, and so on; there may be greenhouses, shade houses, again with special collections such as tropical plants, alpine plants, or other exotic plants. The botanic garden may be an independent institution, a governmental operation, or affiliated to a college or university. If a department of an educational institution, it may be related to a teaching program. In any case, it exists for scientific ends and is not to be restricted or diverted by other demands. It is not merely a landscaped or ornamental garden, although it may be artistic, nor is it an experiment station or yet a park with labels on the plants. The essential element is the intention of the enterprise, which is the acquisition and dissemination of botanical knowledge. Plant conservation and the heritage value of exceptional historic landscapes were treated with a growing sense of urgency. Specialist gardens were sometimes given a separate or adjoining site, to display native and indigenous plants.
The famous botanical gardens in India are-
1. Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden (Shibpur, Kolkata, West Bengal)
2. Agri Horticultural Society of India (Alipore, Kolkata, West Bengal)
3. Lalbagh (Bangalore, Karnataka)
4. Lloyd's Botanical Garden (Darjeeling, West Bengal)
Note: A contemporary botanic garden is a strictly protected natural urban green area, where a managing organization creates landscaped gardens and holds documented collections of living plants and/or preserved plant accessions containing functional units of heredity of actual or potential value for purposes such as scientific research, education, public display, conservation, sustainable use, tourism and recreational activities, production of marketable plant-based products and services for the improvement of human well-being.