Hint: Soil is a natural body made up of solids (minerals and organic matter), liquids and gases that exist on the surface of the soil that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Complete answer: Soil science is the study of soil and its properties such as formation of soil, mapping and classification of soil. The properties of soil and its use and management according to physical , chemical , biological and fertility factors.
Two main branches of soil studies are : 1)Pedology: it is a study of shape, chemistry, morphology, and classification of soil. 2)Edaphology : it is a study of how soils, especially plants, communicate with living things.
The variety of names associated with this discipline refers to the different connections in question. Much of the scientific understanding of soil in nature comes from attempts to survey soil. Soil survey, or soil mapping, is the method by which soil types or other properties of the soil cover over a landscape are defined and mapped to be understood and used by others.
Note: Book yu gong(5th century) mentions the earliest known system of soil classification where the soil was divided into three groups and nine classes based on its colour and texture. The Soil Quality Initiative is one interesting attempt to attract soil scientists in the USA as of 2004. The creation of soil health indicators and then tracking them in a way that gives us long-term (decade-to-decade) input on our success as planetary stewards is essential to the Soil Quality Initiative.