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# What is the working principle of an electromagnet ?

Last updated date: 15th Aug 2024
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Hint:We know that a type of magnet in which a magnetic field is produced by an electric current is an electromagnet. Here, we will discuss in more detail about the definition of electromagnet, its working principle.

We already know that an electric current will generate a magnetic field in a plane perpendicular to the current flow direction. This is how the electromagnet works. A magnet that is driven by electricity is known as an electromagnet. Unlike a permanent magnet, the power of an electromagnet can be adjusted by altering the amount of electric current flowing through it. The property of magnetism is lost when the current flow is interrupted.

However, the electromagnet has an advantage over a permanent magnet in that regulating the electric current often affects the magnetic field, i.e., the strength of the electric field controls the strength of the magnetic field. In reality, by reversing the flow of electricity, the poles of an electromagnet can be reversed.

Magnet Properties: Here are a few of the magnet's properties:
-Attractive property- Magnets attract ferromagnetic materials such as iron, nickel, and cobalt due to their attractive properties.
-Repulsive property- Like poles repel each other, whereas unlike poles attract.
-Repulsive property- Like poles repel each other, whereas unlike poles attract.

So, what are electromagnets and how do they work? Let's take a look at the iron nail itself.When it is not affected by an electric field, why does it not generate a magnetic field?
Individual magnetic fields cancel each other out when the atoms in the nail are oriented in random directions. These atoms are reoriented to point in the same direction under the influence of electric current. These individual magnetic fields combine to form a powerful magnetic field. The degree of reorientation increases as the current flow increases, resulting in a stronger magnetic field. Increased current flow has no effect on the magnetic field produced once all the particles are perfectly reoriented in the same direction. The magnet is said to be saturated at this stage.

Note:The following are some of electromagnetism's drawbacks: they heat up quickly and consume a lot of energy, but their magnetic field can store a lot of energy. The energy will discharge if the electric current is disrupted.