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Which one of the following is a hereditary disease?
A. Cataract
B. Hemophilia
C. Pellagra
D. Osteoporosis

Last updated date: 13th Jun 2024
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Hint: A hereditary disease is something that is passed on from parents to their progenies as a result of the genetic transfer that takes place. It happens due to the inheritance of defective genes that have undergone some mutation.

Complete answer:
Cataract: It is a disease in which the vision of a person is significantly decreased due to the opacification of the eye lens. It most commonly happens due to aging and can also happen due to trauma or radiation exposure. Symptoms include blurred vision or double vision, halos around light, reduced vision at night, intolerance to bright light, etc.
Hemophilia is an inherited genetic disease in which the body is unable to perform blood clotting that results in hemorrhage like incidents, causing significant blood loss. It is an X-linked recessive disorder which passed on from mothers to their sons (not the father because fathers contribute only the Y chromosome). Heterozygous females are carriers of this disease.
Pellagra: It occurs due to a deficiency of vitamin B3 in the body. It is mainly of two types, primary and secondary. Primary occurs due to a vitamin B3 deficit diet and secondary occurs due to the poor ability of the body to consume niacin present in the diet.
Osteoporosis: It is a skeletal disorder in which bones have low bone mass, architectural deterioration, and are very fragile. It can happen due to a number of reasons like kidney disorders, anorexia, hyperthyroidism, excessive alcoholism.

Therefore, the correct answer is (B) Hemophilia.

Hereditary diseases include Down syndrome, Cystic fibrosis, Huntington’s disease, Tay-Sachs disease, Muscular Dystrophy, Sickle cell anemia, Alkaptonuria, Achondroplasia, Brachydactyly, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, etc