Questions & Answers

Which one of the following cell types divide by anticlinal cell division?
(a) Fusiform initials cells
(b) Root cap
(c) Protoderm
(d) Phellogen

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Hint: Cell division is a major process in the growth of any living organism. When a cell divides perpendicularly or at 90 degrees to the plane of division, it is known as anticlinal division.

Complete answer:
A cell may divide by periclinal division or anticlinal division. If a cell divides in a parallel fashion to the plane of division, it is known as periclinal division. It increases the height or length of a plant. Anticlinal division helps in increasing the diameter or thickness of a plant. The outer portion of the apical meristem is known as protoderm. It gives rise to epidermis in the case of shoots and epiblema i.e epidermis of roots by anticlinal division. It is a type of primary meristem because it is directly derived from the meristems of embryos.

Additional Information:
A strip of meristematic cells known as cambium present between the two vascular bundles which are xylem and phloem. They are not similar and are of two types - fusiform initial cells and ray initials. Fusiform initials cells divide by periclinal cell division to form inner secondary xylem and outer secondary phloem.
The root cap is located at the terminal ends of the main root along with its lateral branches and root hairs. It covers the root meristem or actively dividing meristematic cells.
Dicot stems produce cork cambium or phellogen in the outer area of the cortex to increase the girth of the stem. Phellogen divides perclinally to produce an outer layer of cells called cork or phellem and an inner set of tissues called the secondary cortex or phelloderm. Cork or phellem are parenchymatous or collenchymatous while cork or phellem are composed of dead cells filled with suberin.
So, the correct answer is ‘Protoderm’.

Note: The terrestrial plants with great height have a larger transpiration rate. Cork solves this problem by preventing this loss of water. It also protects the inner tender live cells from the attack of pests, mechanical injury, or high temperature. The cork cells also store tannins, resins, etc.