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Which one from those given below is the period for Mendel's hybridization experiments?
A. 1870-1877
B. 1856 - 1863
C. 1840 - 1850
D. 1857-1869

Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
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Hint: Gregor Johann Mendel was the first to define the scientific basis of inheritance that is transfer of characters and variation by conducting hybridisation experiments. But it should be very much clear in mind that he was not the first to conduct these experiments, in fact he was the first to consider one to three characters at one time and this was perhaps the secret of his success.

Complete step-by-step answer:
Mendel did the artificial pollination or cross-pollination experiments by taking several true-breeding pea lines. A true breeding line is one that has undergone continuous self-pollination and he observed the stable trait inheritance and expression for several generations.
Mendel was born on July 22, in 1822. He did his work on Pisum sativum (Garden pea or Edible pea) and performed it for 7 years (1856–1863) and proposed the law of inheritance in living organisms.
Mendel selected a total of 14 true-breeding pea plant varieties, such as the height of the stem whether tall or dwarf as pairs which were similar except for one character with contrasting traits. It means, Mendel selected 7 characters that are seed shape, seed colour, pod colour in pea plant for carrying out hybridisation experiments and to study inheritance
When heterozygous yellow seed is crossed with green seeded plants it is an example of monohybrid cross.
Study of inheritance of a single pair of contrasting traits of a character at a time is called one gene inheritance. Mendel crossed true breeding yellow seeds and true breeding green seeds variety of pea plants to study the inheritance of one gene.
 The plants used in the initial cross are referred to as $\mathop P\nolimits_1 $, and $\mathop P\nolimits_1 $ or parents. Since pea is self-fertilising, the anthers should be removed from the female parent before maturity for the purpose of cross pollination.
The method of removal of anthers from bisexual flowers of female parent plant is called emasculation. The pollen grains present at the dehiscence stage, are taken from the male parent and are dusted on the stigma of emasculated flowers.
He collected the seeds produced as a result of this cross and grew them to generate plants of the first hybrid generation. This generation is also called the filial, (offspring) progeny or the $\mathop F\nolimits_1 $.
When Mendel self-pollinated the yellow seeded $\mathop F\nolimits_1 $, plants, both yellow and green seeded plants were obtained in $\mathop F\nolimits_2 $, generation. Offspring derived from selfing of the $\mathop F\nolimits_1 $, are termed as second filial or $\mathop F\nolimits_2 $, generation. The proportion of plants that were yellow $\dfrac{3}{4}$ of the $\mathop F\nolimits_2 $, population while $\dfrac{1}{4}$ of the $\mathop F\nolimits_2 $, population were green. We must note here that green seeds which disappeared in $\mathop F\nolimits_1 $, generation, reappeared in $\mathop F\nolimits_2 $.

Our required option is B that is 1856 – 1863.

Note: Mendel applied statistical method and mathematical logic for his results. He put accurate and true records of his experiments, giving all the details of the number and type of individuals, which are a necessity in the genetic studies. Mendel experimented on a number of plants for the same trait, say for example height and obtained hundreds of offspring. A large sampling size gave credibility to his results.