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Which of the following is not a sexually transmitted disease?
A. Trichomoniasis
B. Hepatitis B
C. Chlamydiasis
D. Loiasis

Last updated date: 13th Jun 2024
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Hint: Sexually transmitted disease (STD) is a group of diseases that can be spread by sexual contact. The group includes conditions traditionally specified as venereal diseases (VD), such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and genital herpes.

Complete answer:
Trichomoniasis: The microorganism, Trichomoniasis vaginalis, a flagellated protozoan, causes trichomoniasis, an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the vagina in female and urethra in males where it is a common inhabitant. If the normal acidity of the vagina is disrupted, the protozoan may overgrow the normal microbial population and cause trichomoniasis. Symptoms include a yellow vaginal discharge with a particularly offensive odor and severe vaginal itch. Men can have it without overt symptoms but can nevertheless transmit it to women. Sexual partners must be treated simultaneously. The drug of choice is metronidazole.
Hepatitis B: It is a sexually transmitted systemic disease that primarily involves the liver. Hepatitis B virus is classified as a hepadnavirus which mostly causes chronic infections. It is the prime reason for most of the cases of liver cirrhosis and hepatic cancer. It is most commonly spread from a mother to a child at birth (perinatal transfer) or through the blood. The viral genome comprises partially double-stranded circular DNA.
Chlamydiasis: It is a sexually transmitted disease in which the causative agent is an unusual bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis. It causes urethritis in males and the symptoms include a thick discharge, burning on urination, frequent and painful urination. Without treatment, the epididymis may also become inflamed, leading to sterility. In females, the most common site of infection is the cervix, resulting in cervicitis and production of a thick mucus and pus discharge Symptoms include pelvic soreness, lower back pain and abdominal pain. Due to the proximity to the vagina, the female urethra may also become infected, leading to urethritis and symptoms similar to those in males. It can be passed from mother to child at childbirth, infecting the eyes. Treatment consists of administration of tetracycline or doxycycline.
Loiasis: It is caused by Loa Loa worm which is a filarial nematode. It is commonly known as the ‘eye worm’ as it localizes in the conjunctiva of the eye. This nematode is predominantly found in Africa. Symptoms include Calabar swellings and subconjunctival migration of adult worms. Diagnosed by analyzing peripheral blood for microfilariae detection or seeing worms migrating across the eye. Diethylcarbamazine is used for treatment.
Therefore, the answer is (D) Loiasis.

The first well known STD outbreak happened in Europe due to Syphilis. It killed almost 5 million people across Europe. Common symptoms consist of itching, fluid discharge, slight pain, swellings etc. in the genital region. Later complications include pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), abortions, stillbirths, ectopic pregnancies, infertility or even cancer of the reproductive tract.