Hint: This satellite was launched by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957, and it was the first artificial satellite. The development plan was proposed by the chief soviet rocket scientist, Sergei Korolev.
Complete answer: To detect and monitor the physical characteristics of the earth’s surface, remote sensing satellites are used. Land surveys are performed with the help of remote sensing satellites. It is also used in ecology, hydrology, oceanography, geology, meteorology, etc. The SPOT satellite is used for the observation of the earth and is an example of a remote sensing satellite. The French space agency in the 1970s initiated the satellite. Another remote sensing satellite, The LANDSAT program was initiated by NASA and USGS and for the acquisition of satellite imagery of Earth, it is the longest-running enterprise. A series of Indian optical earth observation satellites, the CARTOSAT is also an example of a remote sensing satellite. The Indian Space Research Organization or ISRO operates the satellites. While talking about the remaining option, D. Sputnik 1 was the first artificial satellite, an intentionally placed object into orbit. Sputnik 1 is referred to as an artificial satellite to differentiate it from the natural satellites, the moon. The Soviet Union launched it on October 4, 1957. The launch of the satellite is considered important as it brought major developments in the fields of politics, science, the military, etc.
Thus the correct option is D.
Note: From the Satish Dhawan Space Centre at Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, the first Cartosat was launched. In 1867 orbits, the satellite covered the entire globe. It took 126 days.