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Which of the following is grouped into phanerogams?
(a) Pteridophytes
(b) Gymnosperms
(c) Angiosperms
(d) Both (b) and(c)

Last updated date: 22nd Jun 2024
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Hint: The kingdom Plantae are multicellular eukaryotes with photosynthetic nutrition. They can be grouped into cryptograms and phanerogams. Cryptogams are the plants with no seed formation and seed is the origin of life for phanerogams.

Complete answer:
Phanerogams are vascular plants. The word ‘Phanerogam’ consists of ‘phaneros’ and ‘gamos’ that means ‘visible’ and ‘marriage or fusion’ respectively. Their sex organs are exposed and they are also called Spermatophyta. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms are grouped into phanerogams.
The word ‘Cryptogams’ is made up of ‘phanero’ and ‘gams’ which means ‘hidden’ and ‘marriage or fusion’ respectively. Cryptogams are also called thallophytes or lower plants. Their sex organs are hidden. Vascular tissues i.e xylem and phloem are absent thus, they are non-vascular plants. It consists of three divisions namely- thallophyta, Bryophyta and Pteridophyta. Additional information:
Some features of gymnosperms are:
-Gymnosperms are the plants in which the ovules are exposed and are not enclosed by any ovary wall both before and after fertilization.
-The seeds that develop after fertilization from ovules are exposed on cones or strobili.
-The leaves bearing megasporangia, a sac-like structure in which haploid megaspores are produced, are called megasporophylls. They are arranged to form a female cone or female strobili.
-The cones or strobili bearing microsporophylls with microsporangia are called male strobili. The haploid microspores produced in the microsporangium later develop into pollen grains. They carry male gametes.
- The two male and female cones may be borne on the same tree just as in Pinus or on different plants as in Cycas.
 Some features of angiosperms are:
- Flowering plants with conspicuous floral appendages to surround the male and female reproductive organs.
- After fertilization, the ovary develops into the fruit while ovules develop into seeds.
-In angiosperms, the male sex organ is stamen which is actually a modified microsporophyll. Pistil or carpel is the female sex organ which is a modified megasporophyll.
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So, the correct answer is ‘Both (b) and(c)’.

Note: Pteridophytes is a division of ferns and horsetails. They are the first terrestrial plants having vascular tissues. They are usually found in habitats which may be cool, damp or shady They are used for medicinal purposes and as soil binders, though some are grown as ornamental too. The development of zygotes into an embryo in female gametophytes gave rise to seed habit, which was first reported in pteridophytes. E.g. Selaginella.