Hint: It is the process in which organisms that are not closely related independently evolve some similar features. Different may form similar body types, colors, organs that make up the organism’s phenotype.
Convergent evolution creates analogous organs meaning, which are similar in form or functions between diverged species but were not present in the common ancestor of the two.
Whales, seals, and sharks are completely marine, however, spending their entire lives in the ocean they have developed some similar organs. For example, their appendages are all fin-shaped for pushing through the water, and their bodies are streamlined and smooth. All of them have a single tail fin for propulsion, and many sharks and whales also share a dorsal fin. These similar methods of locomotion are examples of convergent evolution.
Some Other Examples of Convergent Evolution are:
-Complex eyes evolution in vertebrates, cephalopods (squid and octopus), and arthropods.
-Streamlined body of dolphins and sharks
-The ability to produce silk in spiders, silkworms, silk moths, and weaver ants.
-The long structures like tongues and beaks evolved for collecting nectar in hummingbirds, bees, moths, and butterflies.
-Eyespots on the wings of butterflies and the tails of fish.
-Filter feeding is seen in many whales (such as humpback and baleen), sharks (such as whale sharks and basking sharks), and manta rays.
-The evolution of the woody stem found in seed plants, horsetails, and trees.
-The reef-building abilities of many sea life organisms such as sponges, corals, cnidarians, and bacteria.
So, the correct answer is option (c) ‘Convergent evolution’.
Note: Homologous organs are those organs which have a similar structural plan, but different functions. On the other hand, analogous organs are those organs that have different structural plans, but common functions.