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Which of the following is an example of seed in which the endosperm is not completely consumed by developing embryos?
A. Gram
B. Bean
C. Castor
D. Pea

Last updated date: 17th Jul 2024
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Hint: Endoplasm usually refers to the inner (often granulated) portion of the cell's cytoplasm. This is the opposite of the ectoplasm, which is the outer (non-granulate) layer of the cytoplasm, which is usually watery and directly adjacent to the plasma membrane.

Complete Answer:
- Albuminous seeds are seeds that have food contained in a special nourishing tissue called an endosperm that remains persistent to maturity. Cotyledons function only as food-sucking organs and not food-storage organs. The seed of Castor,Wheat Maize are examples
- Exalbuminous seeds are seeds that have accumulated food and cotyledons in a special structure called kernel. It does not stay until the embryo has matured. ,e.g. Pea seed,Gram,Bean.
- Ancestral flowering plants have seeds with small embryos and abundant endosperm, and the evolution of flowering plants continues to display a tendency towards plants with mature seeds and little or no endosperm.
- In more derived flowering plants, the embryo occupies much of the seed and the endosperm is undeveloped or eaten until the seed matures.
- The orchids' dust-like seeds have no endosperm. Orchid seedlings are mycoheterotrophic in their early growth. In certain other species, such as coffee, the endosperm does not grow either.
- Instead, a nutritious tissue called perisperm is formed by the nucleus. The endosperm of certain species is responsible for the seed's dormancy.
- Endosperm tissue often mediates the transfer of nutrients from the mother plant to the embryo, serves as a site for gene imprinting, and is responsible for the aborting of seeds produced from genetically unmatched parents.
- In angiosperms, the endosperm produces hormones such as cytokines that control cell differentiation and embryonic organ formation.

The correct Answer is option(D) Castor.

Note: For example, wheat endosperm is ground into flour for bread (the rest of the grain is often used in whole wheat flour), while barley endosperm is the main source of sugar for beer production. Other examples of endosperm forming the bulk of the edible component are coconut "meat" and coconut "water" and corn.