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Which of the following has a covalent bond formed by donor-acceptor mechanism?
(A) $ {{O}_{3}}. $
(B) $ HN{{O}_{3}}. $
(C) $ C{{O}_{2}}. $
(D) $ P{{H}_{3}}. $

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Last updated date: 25th Jul 2024
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Answer
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Hint: We know that there are various kinds of chemical forces and bonds that tie up molecules with each other. The two fundamental kinds of bonds are marked as ionic bonds and covalent bonds. Ionic bonds need a minimum of one electron acceptor and one electron donor.

Complete answer:
 A covalent bond is sharing of electrons pairs with atoms. These are also known as shared pairs, which are stable as they balance attractive and repulsive forces between atoms. A coordinate covalent bond is also known as dative bond. Coordinate bond is known as the bond formed between the acceptor and the donor atoms. A coordinate covalent bond is also called a dipolar bond. A coordinate bond is shown by an arrow starting from the donor and ending in the acceptor atom.
Co-ordinate bond can also be considered as the bond formed between the donor and acceptor atoms. A coordinate bond is represented by an arrow starting from the donor atoms and ending in the acceptor atom. In some cases the donor may be a molecule, an atom in the molecule can donate the pair of electrons, in that case the Lewis base can act as a donor atom donating a pair of electrons and the acceptor would be the Lewis acid. $ O\leftarrow O=O $
Therefore, the correct answer is option A.

Note:
Remember that every arrow used in a chemical equation represents and has a meaning. For example, forward arrow also known as “reaction arrow”; the resonance arrow; the equilibrium arrow; the Retrosynthesis Arrow etc. An example of coordinate covalent bond is seen between molecules of ammonia, which is a lone pair also called as Lewis base on the nitrogen atom, and Boron trifluoride (Lewis acid having incomplete octet) After, the product formation boron attains complete octet.