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Which living organisms are included in the kingdom monera?

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Last updated date: 17th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: The Five Kingdom Classification was based on the structure of the cell, thallus organization, uptake of nutrition, reproduction, and phylogenetic relationship. The five kingdoms are Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia. This mode of classification was proposed by R.H Whittaker.

Complete answer:
Archaebacteria and eubacteria are two main groups that are included in the Kingdom Monera. Eubacteria can be further classified into bacteria and cyanobacteria. The most common features of bacteria are its unicellular form, its peptidoglycan cell wall, prokaryotic organization, and circular naked DNA. Based on the shape, bacteria can be spherical Coccus, the rod-shaped Bacillus, the comma-shaped Vibrio, and the spiral Spirillum. Some bacteria can synthesize their own food while others have to depend on other organisms for nutrition. The independent ones are called autotrophs and the latter are called heterotrophs. Archaebacteria live in extreme conditions like salty areas (halophiles), hot springs (thermoacidophiles), and marshy areas (methanogens). Archaebacteria have a different cell wall structure than bacteria and this helps them to survive in these conditions.
Eubacteria are also known as true bacteria. A rigid cell wall and a flagellum are the characteristic features of eubacteria. Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic autotrophs because of the presence of chlorophyll-a which is similar to green plants. Flagella are absent in cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are unicellular. They may be colonial or filamentous. They can live in freshwater, marine environment, tree trunks, hot springs, frozen water. Fission is the main mode of reproduction in bacteria. However, under unfavourable conditions, they may produce spores. Mycoplasma, rickettsiae, and actinomycetes also belong to the Kingdom Monera. Mycoplasma does not have any cell wall and has the ability to survive without oxygen.

Note: Bacteria may have harmful as well as useful impacts. The harmful impacts include food poisoning, food spoilage, soil damage. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria, ammonifying bacteria, sulphur bacteria can be useful. Bacteria is also important in the dairy industry.