Hint: Just as various planets revolve around sun, in the same way few celestial bodies revolve around these planets. These bodies are called satellites .For example, the moon revolves around the earth in a nearly circular orbit. Earth is a planet and moon is the satellite of the earth. Moon is the natural satellite of the earth.
Complete step-by-step solution: The Sputnik 1 spacecraft was the first artificial satellite launched in space and it was successfully placed in orbit around the Earth in space and was launched in Kazakhstan, that part of the former Soviet Union. The Russian word "Sputnik" means "companion" In 1885 the first book was discovered named Dreams of Earth and Sky in which it is described how such a satellite could be launched into a low altitude orbit. It was the first satellite in a series of four satellites as part of the Sputnik program of the former Soviet Union and was planned as a contribution to the International Geophysical Year .Three of these satellites (Sputnik 1, 2, and 3) reached Earth orbit. The dimensions and size of Sputnik 1 satellite was about 58.0 cm in diameter sphere made up of aluminum. It contains four antennas .The antennas are pointed from one side and look like long "whiskers". The instruments and electric power sources used in the satellite are in sealed capsules and included transmitters. Since the spheres used in satellites are filled with nitrogen, Satellite Sputnik 1 provided the first opportunity for the detection of meteoroids. The satellite uses transmitters which can be operated for a couple of weeks, until the chemical batteries fail. The Sputnik 1 satellite also reached Earth orbit and was visible from the ground at night. Several duplicates of the Sputnik 1 satellite can be seen at museums in Russia. So first satellite was launched in space by USSR and name of satellite is Sputnik 1 So the correct option of the question is A.
Note: When satellite revolves in a circular orbit around the earth, a centripetal force acts upon the satellite. This force is provided by gravitational force exerted by earth on the satellite. Artificial satellites can be put into stable orbits around the earth. This is done by means of multistage rockets. The satellite is placed in rockets which are launched from the earth.