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Which can be explained as applications of Le Chatelier’s principle?
(A) Transport of oxygen by haemoglobin in the blood
(B) Removal of $C{{O}_ {2}} $ from tissues by blood
(C) Tooth decay due to the use of the sweet substances
(D) all of the above

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Last updated date: 13th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: for determining the application of Le Chatelier’s principle,
For that, we know that Le Chatelier’s principle is: It states that when a system experiences a disturbance (such as concentration, temperature, or pressure changes), it will respond to restore a new equilibrium state.

Complete step by step solution:
We have been asked about the application of Le Chatelier’s principle,
So, we have been provided with 4 application,
The first one is the transport of oxygen by haemoglobin in the blood,
The haemoglobin of Red blood cells combines with oxygen in lungs resulting in the equilibrium:
\[Hb+{{O}_ {2}} \rightleftharpoons Hb{{O}_ {2}} \]
When these are in the lungs, the partial pressure of oxygen is appreciable to show a forward reaction, however, when they pass to tissues, the partial pressure of oxygen decreases to favour backward reaction releasing oxygen.
The next one is Removal of $C{{O}_ {2}} $ from tissues by blood,
It is based on the equilibrium:
\[C{{O}_ {2}} +{{H}_ {2}} O\rightleftharpoons {{H}^ {+}} +HC{{O}_ {3}} ^ {-} \]
In tissues ​$C{{O}_ {2}} $ gets dissolved in ${{H}_ {2}} O$ due to high pressure whereas in lungs, the $C{{O}_ {2}} $ is released out because of low pressure of $C{{O}_ {2}} $.
Next one is Tooth decay due to the use of sweet substances,
It shows the following equilibrium:
\[C{{a}_ {5}} {{(P{{O}_ {4}})} _ {3}} OH\rightleftharpoons 5C{{a}^ {2+}} +4PO_ {4} ^ {3-} +O{{H}^ {-}} \]
Remineralization $\rightleftharpoons $ ​Demineralization​
The use of sweet material or fermentation produces ${{H}^ {+}} $, which combines with $O{{H}^ {-}} $to favour demineralization of enamel causing tooth decay.
So, all the above are the applications of Le Chatelier’s principle.

Therefore, we can conclude that option (D) is correct.

Note: LCP cannot give a definite prediction if the forward reaction is exothermic and has less gaseous products than gaseous reactants in the balanced equation, or if the forward reaction is endothermic and has more gaseous products than gaseous reactants in the balanced equation. calculus is not used here.