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What is thermodynamic equilibrium?

Last updated date: 25th Jun 2024
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Hint: In thermodynamic equilibrium a system follows the zeroth law of thermodynamic. In thermodynamic equilibrium heat loss equals heat gain, and rate of forward direction is equal to rate of backward direction.

Complete Solution :
In thermodynamic equilibrium all the thermodynamic processes of the system remain constant with time. All the macroscopic properties like free energy change or work are remaining the same and a system in isolated condition.
When two bodies or systems at different temperatures come in contact, the heat starts flowing from high temperature to low temperature until equilibrium is not established. At equilibrium there is no heat exchange between the bodies and all the thermodynamic processes remain constant with time.
Two systems will be in a thermodynamic equilibrium when they are in thermal chemical and mechanical equilibrium with each other.
- Thermal equilibrium - in thermal equilibrium the temperature of the system remains constant throughout the body and there is no heat exchange from one part of the body to another part.
- Mechanical equilibrium - mechanical equilibrium the pressure of the system remains constant and no mechanical work is done by one part of the system.
- Chemical equilibrium- in chemical equilibrium the composition of different phases remains same and chemical composition of the system remains constant and there is no chemical reaction taking place.

Note: Two systems are in thermodynamic equilibrium, if they are in thermal, mechanical and chemical equilibrium with one another.
- In an equilibrium state system that is balanced, there is no derived force within the system.