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What is the most stable potassium ion?

Last updated date: 23rd Feb 2024
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IVSAT 2024
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Hint: We know that in order to deal with this question we will elaborate the octet rule further we will take an example of potassium. Also potassium is one of the s-block element metals. It belongs to group $1$ period $4$ and are alkali metals.

Complete answer:
Here the element is oxidized since the ionization energy of the element is very low. Potassium ions are used for oxidation of sugar, activate enzymes, etc. They are present in cell fluid. Octet law: The octet rule states that atoms are most stable when eight electrons occupy their valence shells. It is based on the fact that the atoms of the main group elements appear to be involved in chemical bonding in such a way that each atom of the resulting molecule has eight electrons in the shell of valence. The law of the octet applies only to the principal group elements.
The halogens, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon molecules are believed to follow the laws of the octet. The elements that follow this law usually include the s-block elements and the p-block elements (except hydrogen, helium, and lithium).
The atomic number of potassium is $19$. That indicates \[19\] protons are present around the nucleus of the atom. These $19$ protons are further arranged in their energy level as $1{{s}^{2}}2{{s}^{2}}2{{p}^{6}}3{{s}^{2}}3{{p}^{6}}4{{s}^{1}}$. Here there is only one electron in the outermost $4s$ shell. Release of this electron will make a stale compound of potassium. And hence will gain a positive charge. Therefore the most stable compound of potassium is ${{K}^{+}}$. Since there is a transfer electron they are called cations. To gain stability potassium transfers an electron and forms ${{K}^{+}}$ ion. If elements lose its electron it gains $+ve$ charge and if it gains an electron it will gain a $-ve$ charge.

Remember that the outermost shell of any element is the shell of Valence. Atoms in individual elements have various electrical properties, based on the atomic number of each element. The electrical arrangement refers to the distribution of electrons in various shells/orbits/levels of energy at each atom. The number of electrons in the outermost shell of a given atom determines either its reactivity, or a propensity to form chemical bonds with other atoms. This outermost shell is known as the valence shell, and the electrons trapped inside are known as valence electrons.
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