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Last updated date: 21st Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: This deals with colloidal particles and electric fields. Electrophoresis comes under electrokinetics and this is used for separation of particles like protein, DNA etc.

Complete step by step answer:
Electrophoresis is the migration of colloidal particles under the influence of an applied electric field.
Positively charged particles move towards anode (cataphoresis) whereas negatively charged particles move towards anode (anaphoresis).
Electrophoresis is used to determine the charge on colloidal particles.
Coagulation of lyophobic sols can also be carried out by electrophoresis. It is when electrophoresis is carried out for a long time, colloidal particles touch the electrode, charge neutralisation takes place and get coagulated.

Additional Information:
Electrophoresis as an electrokinetic phenomenon was first observed in 1807 by Russian professors Peter Ivanovich Strakhov and Ferdinand Frederic Reuss at Moscow University. They noticed that the application of a constant electric field caused the clay particles in water to migrate.
It is ultimately caused by the presence of a charged interface between the particle surface and the surrounding fluid. It is the basis for analytical techniques used in chemistry for separating molecules by size, charge, or binding affinity.
Electroosmosis is another phenomenon. If the movement of colloidal particles are prevented by suitable means, then the dispersion medium begins to move under the applied electric field. This is called electroosmosis.
As we have mentioned in the solution about the application of electrophoresis in coagulation. Coagulation or precipitation is the process of settling colloidal particles.

Note: Remember that electrophoresis and electroosmosis are two different concepts. Under an applied electric field , migration of colloidal particles is known as electrophoresis and migration of dispersion is known as electroosmosis.